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Gender, Disaster Risk Reduction, and Climate Change Adaptation: A Learning Companion

Gender, Disaster Risk Reduction, and Climate Change Adaptation: A Learning Companion

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Published by Oxfam
This Learning Companion aims to provide Oxfam
programme staff with the basis for incorporating gender analysis and women’s rights into disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) programming. Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction are priorities for Oxfam GB, as are strengthening women’s rights and gender equality.
This Learning Companion aims to provide Oxfam
programme staff with the basis for incorporating gender analysis and women’s rights into disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) programming. Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction are priorities for Oxfam GB, as are strengthening women’s rights and gender equality.

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Published by: Oxfam on Apr 11, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/02/2013

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Gender, Disaster Risk Reduction, andClimate Change Adaptation: A Learning CompanionOxfam Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation Resources
 
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Learning objectives
After reading this Companion, you should
•
have a theoretical overview of how poverty andinequality shape the experiences of women andmen during disasters, and as a result of climatechange;
•
understand Oxfam’s approach to strengtheninggender equality and women’s rights throughgender mainstreaming, and how this is appliedto adaptation and risk reduction work in practice;
•
understand what gender equality, women’srights, and women’s empowerment mean interms of changes in the lives of women and menwho are vulnerable to the impacts of climatechange and at risk of disaster; and
•
know where to go to learn more.
1 About this Learning Companion
This Learning Companion aims to provide Oxfamprogramme staff with the basis for incorporatinggender analysis and women’s rights into Disaster RiskReduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA)programming. Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction are priorities for Oxfam GB, as arestrengthening women’s rights and gender equality.This Companion is one of a series that covers key topicsfor programme staff. You should read the LearningCompanions ‘An Introduction to Disaster Risk Reduction’and ‘An Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation’ rstfor denitions of DRR and CCA and other key terminology,as well as Oxfam’s ‘Disaster Risk Reduction ProgrammePolicy’ and ‘Climate Change Adaptation Programme PolicyGuidelines’. This Companion assumes that you alreadyhave an understanding of Adaptation and Risk Reductionand of Oxfam’s approach to project cycle management,and that you understand the basic concepts of gender and poverty analysis. For more information, please seethe ‘further reading’ section at the end of this document.Oxfam staff can contact the Programme Help Desk(
phd@oxfam.org.uk
).
Contents
1 About this Learning Companion2 Why is gender important to Oxfam’s adaptation and risk reduction work?3 Oxfam’s approach to gender mainstreaming in adaptation and risk reduction4 Project cycle management: adaptation and risk reduction from a gender perspective4.1 Programme identication: gender analysis4.2 Planning and design4.3 Implementation and management: gender mainstreaming in practice4.4 Monitoring and evaluation5 Summary of key learning6 Further readingNotes
 
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2 Why is gender important to Oxfam’sadaptation and risk reduction work?
The poverty experienced by millions of women and menis shaped by inequalities that discriminate against andmarginalize certain social groups by denying them their right of access to resources, opportunities, and power.The most pervasive of these inequalities, and the onewhich affects all communities, is gender inequality. Oxfambelieves that gender inequality is a fundamental abuseof women’s human rights, as well as a major barrier tosustainable development. Across the world, womentend to hold less power and to have control over fewer resources than men, at every institutional level. Women’sdisadvantage – their unequal access to resources, legalprotection, decision making and power, their reproductiveburden,
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and their vulnerability to violence – consistentlyrender them more vulnerable than men to the impacts of climate change and disasters. Understanding how gender relations shape women’s and men’s lives is thereforecritical to effective Climate Change Adaptation andDisaster Risk Reduction.
Key gender terms
Gender 
refers to the social differences betweenfemales and males throughout the life cycle. Thesegender differences are learned, and though deeplyrooted in every culture, are changeable over time, andhave wide variations both within and between cultures.‘Gender’, along with other aspects of social identitysuch as class and race, determines the roles, power,and access to resources for females and males in anyculture.
Gender equality
, or equality between women andmen, refers to the equal enjoyment by women, girls,boys, and men of rights, opportunities, resources, andrewards; an equal say in the development process;and the same level of dignity and respect. Equalitydoes not mean that women and men are the same, butthat they have the same power to make choices, andthe same opportunities to act on those choices.
Gender mainstreaming
is a globally recognizedstrategy for making women’s as well as men’sconcerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluationof policies and programmes in all political, economic,and societal spheres. This is to ensure that women andmen benet equally from processes of development,and that inequality is not perpetuated.
Gender-based violence
(GBV) is a term used todescribe physical, mental, or social abuse, committedon the basis of the victim’s gender and against her will. This includes acts of violence, attempted or threatened, committed with force, manipulation, or coercion. Examples of GBV include sexual violence,domestic violence, female genital mutilation (FGM),harm to men’s genitals, forced early marriage, andwidow killings. Gender-based violence is rooted inunequal power relations between women and men.Most acts of GBV are committed by men or boysagainst women and girls: this is known as ’violenceagainst women’ (VAW). But men and boys mayalso be the target of GBV, and women can also beperpetrators of GBV; for example, male violenceagainst gay men, or women’s involvement in propertygrabbing.
‘The river has taken everything – my animals, house, land, even my family.’ Rosa Juarez, 93, Vicus, Peru. Like many places in the area,Vicus is vulnerable to ooding and landslides. Oxfam and its partner Centro Ideas have supported the local civil defence committee to bebetter prepared to help people like Rosa when disaster strikes.Photo: Gilvan Barreto/Oxfam, 2008.

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