can be broadly defined as solid, liquid, or gas fuel derivedfrom recently dead biological material. This distinguishes it from fossilfuels, which are derived from long dead biological material. Biofuel canbe theoretically produced from any (biological) carbon source, thoughthe most common by far is photosynthetic plants. Various plants andplant-derived materials are used for Biofuels manufacture. Biofuels areused globally, most commonly to power vehicles and cooking stoves.Biofuel industries are expanding in Europe, Asia and the Americas.Biofuels offer the possibility of producing energy without a net increaseof carbon into the atmosphere, because the plants used in to producethe fuel have removed CO
from the atmosphere, unlike fossil fuelswhich return carbon which was stored beneath the surface for millionsof years into the air. Therefore, Biofuels is in theory more nearlycarbon neutral and less likely to increase atmospheric concentrationsof greenhouse gases. (However, doubts have been raised as towhether this benefit can be achieved in practice, see below). The useof Biofuels also reduces dependence on petroleum and enhancesenergy security.There are two common strategies of producing Biofuels. One is to growcrops high in sugar (sugar cane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum) orstarch (corn/maize), and then use yeast fermentation to produce ethylalcohol (ethanol). The second is to grow plants that contain highamounts of vegetable oil, such as oil palm, soybean, algae, or jatropha. When these oils are heated, their viscosity is reduced, andthey can be burned directly in a diesel engine, or they can bechemically processed to produce fuels such as biodiesel. Wood and itsbyproducts can also be converted into Biofuels such as wood gas,methanol or ethanol fuel. It is also possible to make cellulosic ethanolfrom non-edible plant parts, but this can be difficult to accomplisheconomically.Biofuels are discussed as having significant roles in a variety of international issues, including: mitigation of carbon emissions levelsand oil prices, the "food vs. fuel" debate, deforestation and soilerosion, impact on water resources, and energy balance and efficiency.
refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters, made by transesterificationof vegetable oil, which can be used (alone, or blended with