Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Large Diameter Diaphragm Wall Shafts

Large Diameter Diaphragm Wall Shafts

Ratings: (0)|Views: 53 |Likes:
Published by John Rong

More info:

Published by: John Rong on Apr 12, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/12/2012

pdf

text

original

 
RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE DIAMETER DIAPHRAGM WALL SHAFTS
Benoit Virollet and Christian Gilbert, Soletanche-Bachy, Nantarre, France, andRick Deschamps, Nicholson Construction, Pittsburgh, PAOver the last 10 years the diameter of unbraced, unlined and unanchored circularshafts has grown dramatically in many parts of the world. This progress hastaken place through improvements in: construction methods; concrete rheology;and design capabilities. Excavation equipment has become more precise interms of operator control and ability to correct alignment of digging elementsleading to better alignment tolerances. Also contributing to the increases in shaftdiameters is the evolution of design models. A better understanding of soilstructure interaction is being incorporated into the analyses in terms of radial soilstresses and imposed loads on the shaft. This paper provides an overview of therecent progress made in circular shaft construction, the primary designconsiderations, and some innovative uses of efficient arc elements to developunsupported structures of other shapes. In addition, a summary of recentcircular shafts constructed worldwide is provided.
Introduction
Circular diaphragm walls are constructed withthe same techniques that are used to constructplane walls. They are built in situ under a drillingfluid which stabilizes the excavation. Thesurrounding soil acts as the formwork forconstructing the concrete elements. A deeppanel trench is first excavated and stabilised bybentonite slurry. When excavated to the desireddepth, the reinforcement cage is installed andconcrete is tremie poured from the bottomdisplacing the lighter bentonite. The stability ofthe trench is ensured by both the slurry and thearching of the soil on each side of the excavatedpanel. Accordingly, the trench length is limited inorder take advantage of the arching such thatthe diaphragm wall is built through a series ofindependent panels. "Water stops" andinterlocking joints are installed between panelsto ensure the water tightness of the wall andshear transfer between panels. Excavationbegins after the panels have achieved designstrength.The tools used to excavate the panels have arectangular shape, the length of which is on theorder of three meters (Figure 1). In practice, thepanels are generally made of three "bites," twoindependent bites with a connecting smaller biteto control clamshell alignment. Therefore, thetypical panel lengths are approximately sevenmeters.The primary objective of this paper is tointroduce a cost effective construction approachfor support of excavation for circular shafts to abroader audience in the United States. Thetechniques described are used on a routinebasis and on a much greater scale in other partsof the world than are currently employed inNorth America. The technology is available interms of equipment and methods of analysis,and there are several contractors with thecapacity to competitively bid and build this work.Accordingly, it is hoped that designers willbecome familiar with the cost savings andimproved certainty of execution with thisapproach relative to alternative systems such assunken caissons. These systems are especiallyattractive solutions to the EPA mandated CSOstructures being constructed in manycommunities.
Basic Mechanical Behaviour of a CircularShape
Circular walls are unique in that they cannotconverge freely when loaded externally.Consider a thin circular wall with a radius "R"that is subjected to an axisymmetrical pressure"p". The force equilibrium diagram shows that
 
the reaction to the external pressure produces acompressive "hoop" force in the wall whichresists the tendency to converge. This isexpressed in Figure 2 where a free bodydiagram of a segment of wall is shown. Thehoop force , N
h
, is related to theapplied external pressure by the relationship :N
h
= p R (1)No extra support is required to balance theexternal forces. This is the reason why circularwalls are inherently stable provided the hoopforce does not exceed the limits of the materialproperties.A circumferential stiffness that relates theapplied pressure to the radial displacement,
R,can be defined as follows :P = E t
R / R
2
(2)"E" is Young’s modulus of ring material and t isthe wall thickness. This relationship obtained fora ring is used for the three dimensional circularwall under axisymmetrical pressure diagrams.
Advantages of Circular Diaphragm Walls
Based on the previous remarks, circulardiaphragm walls provide a lot of advantagescompared to plane walls. They do not needsupports such as struts or tie-back anchors.Excavation works can be achieved quicklywithout complicated construction sequence orcoordination between the excavator and anchorinstaller.Another benefit of the inherently stable circulardiaphragm walls lies in the much lessened needfor embedment to provide wall stability.Obviously other criteria for embedment must beconsidered, such as hydraulic stability (i.e.piping) and basal stability, but embedment formechanical stability of toe is unnecessary.It should also be recognized that as the hoopforce provides a stiff continuous support to thewall, the bending moment and shear force in thewall remain generally small leading to "light"reinforcement ratios.
Design of Circular Diaphragm Walls
Wall Alignment.
The design of circulardiaphragm walls can require some unusualconsiderations which leads to a need forFigure 1. Clamshell bucket.
RR-uud
θ
d
θ
N
 
h
N
h
2N
h
d
θ
p2pRd
θ
pRR-uud
θ
d
θ
N
 
h
N
h
2N
h
d
θ
p2pRd
θ
d
θ
d
θ
N
 
h
N
h
2N
h
d
θ
p2pRd
θ
p
 Figure 2 : Free body diagram of a circularsegment.
 
detailed analyses. Tied to the analysis is arigorous control of construction tolerances. Thestabilizing hoop force produces a normalcompressive stress in the structure which islimited by the strength of the concrete. Thiscompressive stress is a function not only of thehoop force but also of the thickness of the ring.As described previously, diaphragm walls areconstructed by individual panels. These panelsare excavated with a rectangular shape shovel(Figure 1) such that it isn't possible to constructa perfect ring (Figure 3). Moreover, theexcavation of the panels is done with a specifiedvertical tolerance, which makes the shape of thewall deviate further from the ideal geometry withdepth (Figure 3b). It is therefore essential to beable to control as much as possible theverticality of the excavating tool. This toleranceessentially depends on the experience of theoperator but also on the type of tool (mechanicgrab, hydraulic grab or hydrofraise), the type ofsoil (presence of boulders or not, stiffness of thesoil, etc.) and the quality control duringexcavation. This control is done through onboard instrumentation that allows for real timemeasurement of, and the ability to correct,deviation. Typical specified tolerance indeviation is in the order of 1% of the wall height,but 0.5% can be commonly achieved in practice.Regardless of the vertical tolerance achieved,the actual geometry will not be a perfect ring.The common approach used to take intoaccount the "real" geometry is to inscribe anannulus into the actual shape and calculate thewall loads neglecting the concrete outside thisannulus. This method is very conservativebecause an inscribed annulus is not anecessary condition for stability because thewall is capable of resisting bending and shearstresses. This is easily demonstrated byconsidering self stable elliptical shafts whereinan inscribed circle is not possible. An exampleis shown in Figure 4 of the Méricourt CSO shaft.
Wall Shape.
With elliptical shafts the externalsoil provides the required extra reaction tomaintain stability. The wall sections experiencevarying bending moments with location inaddition to the compressive stresses becausethe radial strains/displacements are no longeruniform. The stresses resulting from the actualgeometry are evaluated by modelling the wall asa horizontal beam in interaction with an elasticplastic soil on one side only. This model givesthe normal forces, N, and the bending moments,M, at each node. This model allows for the
P1P2P3P4P5P8P7P6
Φ
 
int
= 16mL = 2.8me = 0.5mP1P2P3P4P5P8P7P6
Φ
 
int
= 16mL = 2.8me = 0.5m
 Figure 3 : Shape of a circular diaphragm wall including (la) grab geometry without deviation and(b) grab geometry and deviation.
(a) (b)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->