Tourism Management 28 (2007) 1168–1179
Progress in tourism management
Twenty years on: The state of contemporary ecotourism research
David B. Weaver
, Laura J. Lawton
School of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Received 16 January 2007; accepted 7 March 2007
The ecotourism literature is focused on market segmentation, ecological impacts of wildlife viewing, and community-basedecotourism, but there has been minimal attention to critical areas such as quality control, the industry, external environments orinstitutions even as the components and parameters of ecotourism are being extended. This imbalance, combined with the fragmentationand lack of integration within the literature, suggest that ecotourism, as a ﬁeld of academic inquiry, is still in a state of adolescence.
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ecotourism; Literature review
When the term ‘ecotourism’ (or sometimes ‘eco-tour-ism’) ﬁrst began to appear regularly in the English-language academic literature in the late 1980s, no onecould have predicted the prominent position that this thenobscure niche product would come to occupy 20 years laterwithin the tourism sector and more speciﬁcally as a topic of investigation within the ﬁeld of tourism studies. Indicationsof this prominence include the declaration of 2002 as theInternational Year of Ecotourism (IYE) by the UnitedNations, and the establishment in that same year of thespecialised peer-reviewed
Journal of Ecotourism
. Ecotour-ism is now offered as an elective or core subject withinmany university and college tourism programs, andoccasionally as a concentration or degree in its own right.These subjects and programs are supported by anexpanding array of textbooks both general in scope(Fennell, 2003;Page&Dowling, 2002;Wearing&Neil,
1999;Weaver, 2001a, in press) and addressing speciﬁc
ecotourism topics (Black&Crabtree, 2007;Buckley,
2003;Zeppel, 2006), and also by more than 400 refereed
journal articles as of late 2006 in which ecotourism is theprimary focus (as calculated from the publication databaseleisuretourism.com—see below).These developments indicate a ‘coming of age’ forecotourism as a ﬁeld of academic enquiry, and it is thepurpose of this review to determine to what extent such anassessment is justiﬁed. This review is based on the English-language academic literature and peer-reviewed articles inparticular, as obtained from the search engine leisuretour-ism.com, maintained by the UK-based academic publisherCABI Publishing. As of late 2006, this database containedover 75,000 abstracts pertinent to the ﬁelds of tourism,leisure, recreation, sport and hospitality, going back to themid-1970s and derived from more than 6000 periodicals aswell as academic book publisher lists. Coverage of refereed journals in these ﬁelds appears inclusive, while articlesrelated to these ﬁelds in other disciplines such asgeography, economics and ecology are also included inthe database (CABI, 2007). The authors searched all titlesand abstracts for relevant terms such as ‘ecotourism,’ ‘eco-tourism,’ ‘ecotourist(s),’ ‘eco-tourist(s),’ ‘nature-basedtourism,’ ‘nature tourism,’ ‘wildlife watching,’ ‘whalewatching,’ and ‘bird watching.’ Abstracts were read toeliminate sources in which the coverage of ecotourism wastangential. The remaining sources were consulted by theauthors, and organised, based on the abstracts, intointerrelated topics as described inFig. 1.Structured loosely on the chapter organisation of Weaver (in press), this schemata begins with a basic
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