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2011 MCC Baja SAE Design Report

2011 MCC Baja SAE Design Report

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Published by Ronald George
Baja SAE 2011 Report
Baja SAE 2011 Report

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Published by: Ronald George on Apr 12, 2012
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Vehicle No.103
Design of a Competition ATV for the 2011 SAE Baja
 
Series
Monroe Community College, Rochester NY
 
Ronald George
Captain, Suspension Engineer 
Carlo Inglese
Treasurer, Controls Engineer 
Daniel Sze
Secretary, Powertrain Engineer 
Copyright © 2007 SAE International
ABSTRACT
The design of MCC’s prototype baja vehicle is discussedin this report. The paper is written for a generalaudience and consists of an introduction summarizingthe goals and design approach, followed by a descriptionof vehicle systems present in the car. In places, relevantresearch done by students pertaining is also included toenhance subject matter. The appendix contains vehiclespecifications, relevant images, plots and calculations.
INTRODUCTION
In the summer of 2010, a group of new student leaderswere elected to the board of officers for the 2011 MCCBaja Team. When the annual budget was madeavailable, the team registered itself into the 2011 SAEBaja Illinois Competition as “Car No. 103 TribunesRacing”.DESIGN PROBLEM – Every product must serve apurpose, otherwise no one would buy it. Team leaderssourced this main purpose from the SAE Rulebook.[1]MAN, MONEY, TIME – The project was essentially asystems engineering task. The automotive team wasbroken down into four major departments without overlydividing labor for a small group. The 12-person teamwas structured into sub teams (Fig. D4). Financialresources were divided among the various systems andsubsystems (Fig. D5) and a Gantt chart was designedfor the 9 month project (Fig. D6).BRAINSTORMING & RESEARCH – The project wasstarted with questions in order to explore everypossibility right away. Modest research was done tounderstand the trends and safety issues in the ATVindustry. The team visited local ATV showrooms andstudied commercial catalogues. In preliminary designmeetings, the team brainstormed ideas andbenchmarked the competition by studying images andcompetition videos. An early concept sketch thatresulted is shown in Fig. A1.FUNCTIONAL OBJECTIVES – The team sought todesign with a focused purpose and develop thearchitecture with a logical process. The Rulebookrequirements, combined with research material andideas drawn from discussions among team patrons ledto the formulation of a broad set of requirements. Theserequirements were graded for priority shown in Fig. A2.ERGONOMICS & PACKAGING – Ideation for thepackaging was driven first and foremost by the safetyand comfort needs of the driver. The geometry of the95
th
percentile human along with some of the team’sdrivers helped provide seating and control hard points. After this, an envelope was created around the driver toset up environment dimensions (Fig. A3).PRODUCT ENGINEERING & FABRICATION –Prepared with a starting set of specifications (Fig. A4),engineering could proceed. In the following pages, eachvehicle system is described and the choices behinddesigns justified on the basis of cost, time,manufacturing ease, and structural considerations.
ERGONOMICS
OBJECTIVE – The SAE rulebook calls for a vehicledesign accommodating all individuals between 95
th
 percentile male to the 5
th
percentile female. The goalwas to design a vehicle which would fit humans in thisrange so that the machine could achieve near universaloperability. This had positive implications from a designand marketability standpoint.RESEARCH – Motor vehicle operation is a set of controltasks. Control movements are easiest when the limbs
 
are moderately flexed and extreme body positionsavoided. Some clues as to what optimum to shoot for were discovered in equipment design research. [2]Some interesting information gleaned from the studywas as follows:1. The best elbow angle for exerting force in the seatedposition is approximately 120°.2. For heavy loads, the radius of hand operated wheelsshould not exceed 20” or fall below 7”.3. For control pedal operation, the long axis of the feetand lower leg should form a 90° angle as thisrequires the least muscular effort to hold in place.4. Where rapid, continued pedal movements arerequired, the pedal should be toe operated, with thefulcrum at the base of the heel.5. The leg exerts maximum force with the knee angleat about 130-150°.6. When maximum pedal pressures are sought, thefore-and-aft seat reference point to pedal distanceshould be about 47.5% of the height of the driver.When great force is not needed, the distance shouldbe increased for comfort.7. As pedals are moved laterally from the midline of thebody in plan view, force exerted decreases. It falls to90% when the pedal is placed 3” to either side; to73% with a 6.7” shift; and to a 63% with a 10.2” shift.Hence, it should not be placed more than 3-5” fromthe midline.8. For frequently but not continuously used legoperated pedals like the brake, a pressure of about30% of maximum exertable is reasonable. For continuous usage pedals like the accelerator,resistance should not exceed 10 pounds. For toeoperated pedals, the best resistance is from 6.5 to 9pounds.9. Pedals operated by ankle action should have amaximum travel of 2”, corresponding to an angle of 10-12°. When heavy footgear is anticipated, pedaltravel should be increased.10. For all foot controls, the direction of travel should bedown, or away from the body, in line with the longaxis of the lower leg and roughly parallel to the mid-sagittal plane of the body.STATIC FIT – Armed with research knowledge, studentdesigners began by obtaining physique data of theintended operators. The test subjects - 3 males and onefemale - were given standard racing gear to wear andwere sat against a mock firewall oriented at 20° from thevertical. Important parameters like hip joint height, knee-torso angle, knee angle, thigh-seat angle, degree of ankle bend, head to roof clearance, elbow and wristangles were explored.DYNAMIC FIT – Drivers were moved from their staticpositions until muscle tension, such as on wrist, ankleand the under part of the thigh were eased. The driverswere made to flex and abduct their elbows to explore theenvelope of hand control. The range of visibility was alsochecked in order to design a non-obstructive frontbracing structure. Driver egress was mocked in order todesign a practical structure that did not hinder anemergency escape. Finally, different side impactmember heights were explored to locate the optimalposition for egress and protection during a rock crawlevent.SEATING – A custom Kirky seat is used to increasedriver comfort. It is made of MIG welded .125” thick 5052grade aluminum. The seat is as low as practical in thevehicle to lower center of gravity (c.o.g). From practicalexperimentation, the previous car’s c.o.g was measuredto be 22” +/- 2”. It was deemed desirable to decreasethis to 20” to reduce possibility of roll-over. The seatsfrom previous years led to distraction because the ribsupports tightened unsuitably around the driver’s ribcage. Hence, the existing seat was modified by thefabrication group. In the process, 5 pounds of weight inmetal was dropped. Students also decided that a tub-likeseating envelope around the driver would be an optimalplan. This not only increased driver comfort by adding tothe range of motion of leg movement but also modeledthe exterior of the Baja car like a “hull” for future water competitions.CAD MODEING – The hard points obtained through theabove exercise were then transferred to Solid works.CAD designers on the team used these points to createdatum planes that the structural features of the vehiclewould reference. ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED:1. In the CAD design stage, designers could haveemployed a generic 95
th
male 3D model. However,this alone was deemed insufficient since the modelwasn’t representative of a fully geared driver nor didit account for gender variation.2. The population sample size for fit analysis couldhave been increased. However, from the team’sstandpoint, this would entail an unprofitableexpenditure of time and effort.3. 3D laser scanners are used by some schools tomodel part geometry to custom fit a driver. [3] Whilethis is certainly attractive, it would incur unnecessarycosts.
POWERTRAIN
OBJECTIVE - The design goal in this department was toproduce a 40:1 overall transmission ratio power systemthat is reliable, serviceable, safe and easy tomanufacture. Following is a description of the major systems comprising the powertrain.ENGINE – The air-cooled engine used on the car is a 4stroke, 18.64 in
3
(305cc) displacement Briggs & Strattonmotor of “Over Head Valve” type (OHV). It is supplied toteams by Briggs and Stratton at sponsored cost and is toremain stock as per the Rulebook. [4] It has a .75” key-way PTO shaft as output and a compression ratio of 8.0to 1. The engine weighs roughly 64 lbs. Engine idle RPMis set to 1750 RPM. At competition, the governor isusually set at max 3800 RPM, well below its RPM
 
capabilities. This is done for safety reasons so that theengine does not reach lethal speeds and destroy itself.Power and torque – Engine output has two components – power and torque. Power is important for the bajavehicle to perform under steady loads while torque givesthe car the ability to cope with sudden loads. The enginehas an advertised maximum torque of 19.65 N.m (14.5ft.lbs) and a nominal power rating of 10 hp. However,data from an actual dyno test was in order. Due to lackof dyno facilities in the area that could supply us withprinted graphs, test data was obtained from another team to help with tuning (Fig. C3).Fuel and oil – The engine has an oil capacity of 28 fl. oz(0.77 L) and a fuel capacity of 4 qts (3.78L). Asrecommended by Briggs, 5W-20 oil is used for lubrication. This oil behaves like a 5-weight oil duringcold weather starts and gives the protection of 20-weightat high temperatures. It also has a float carburetor for consistent easy starting. A custom removable fuel tank ismade out of .125” aluminum sheet for rapid and spill-freerefueling. The fuel consumption in gallons per hour at aparticular load level could be an important parameter for pit crew. This data was able to be obtained through goodrecord keeping of past engineering data. See Fig. C1.Engine plate – A custom engine plate is designed to seatthe engine. The plate allows the user to adjust theengine 1 inch fore and aft as it has parallel counter bored slots. This allows flexibility in use of multiple CVTcenter-center belts and allows for optimum CVT tuning.The engine is mounted to the plate using either 5/16-18UNC or 5/16-24 UNF bolts, grade 5 or better.Noise, Vibration, Harshness (NVH) – It is the nature of single cylinder 4-stroke engines to vibrate. To dampenthese vibrations, a thin layer of vibration resistant rubber is applied between the engine plate and the rollcage.Noise is one of the most common occupational healthhazards and it is not uncommon for machine operatorsto complain because of its fatiguing nature. [5] Toprovide one solution in this area, the exhaust muffler canbe changed to a less noisy one. The noise level at 4meters away from the engine varies as a function of RPM and load for a given muffler (Fig.C2). A 2.5 to 3%reduction in db(A) levels can be attained by using Super Lo-Tone muffler, which is why it was chosen for theexhaust of this vehicle. For perspective, the standard for street-legal exhaust noise emissions in motorcycles is 80dB (A). [6]CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION – Thetorque transferring CVT used is a descendant of dragracing clutch, made especially for mini baja applicationsby Gaged Engineering in Nebraska. This system isprimarily made out of aluminum and has one of thelightest overall weights at roughly 10 lbs +/- 1 lb.Transmission Ratios - The GX8 clutch system has aprimary with pulleys of 5.5” diameter and a secondarywith pulleys of 7.5” diameter pulleys. The clutch providesan low drive ratio of 4.5:1 and a high of 1:1 when thesecondary is fully engaged.Belts – Power and torque transmission is carried out viaa rubber V-belt. Due to the adjustable engine plate,multiple center-center belts can be used in this system,from 8” c-c all the way to 9 ¼ “c-cServiceability – A special inner post is used in thesecondary CVT that allows the use of a splined 1” OD jackshaft. This system is easy to install and disassemblecompared to Woodruff keys.Justification - A CVT was chosen because theoretically,a tuned system will shift out at the peak power output of the engine, thereby yielding an efficient system. [7] Indiscrete-gear transmissions, lesser time is spent at thepower peak during shifts. Given equal power to weightratios, a vehicle with a tuned CVT should theoreticallyoutperform a stick shift system. CVT’s are not cheap,especially the Gaged model. However, to save onfinancial resources, last year’s model was re-used as ithad no perceivable problems other than light scuff markson the Primary pulleys.CVT Case - The CVT case is a 1/8 in. thick rectangular box made of 6061-T6 aluminum in a weldedconstruction. It has two holes in it for the engine shaftinput and the jack shaft output which interfaces with theSecondary. The box itself is made out of 1/8” thick 6061aluminum sheet metal welded together to allow a 1”clearance on all sides for the CVT itself. A rectangular box is easier to manufacture than a curved box.PLANETARY GEARBOX – The design features areduction gearbox after the CVT secondary stage tobring down RPM to usable levels. A 5:1 gearbox fromMATEX Gears is featured on the car. This is the mostcompact inline planetary gearbox offered on the market.The 5:1 system offers high reduction, while keepingweight and moment of inertia balanced.Planetary Case - The gearbox is encased within acustom made case. It is designed in a way to allow CNCmilling on a stock 6061 billet without any weldingrequired at all. The case is robust and works for thevehicle needs.CHAIN DRIVE - With 4.5:1 in the CVT and 5:1 inplanetary, the desired overall ratio was targeted by a 2:1chain drive system. The system features a steel,hardened 17T sprocket and an aluminum 38T sprocket.The driver sprocket was held on the splined jackshaftwith a retainer ring and a threaded nut. The drivensprocket was positioned on the splined axle using acustom made sprocket holder that was speciallydesigned to withstand torsional stresses. Power istransmitted using a standard 428 motorcycle chain. Thechain has a pitch of 0.50 in. and a tensile strength ratingof 23.6 kN (5300 lbs). The theoretical chain loadcalculated at max power transmission is approximately3.2KN (724 lbs) (Fig C3).

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