are moderately flexed and extreme body positionsavoided. Some clues as to what optimum to shoot for were discovered in equipment design research. Some interesting information gleaned from the studywas as follows:1. The best elbow angle for exerting force in the seatedposition is approximately 120°.2. For heavy loads, the radius of hand operated wheelsshould not exceed 20” or fall below 7”.3. For control pedal operation, the long axis of the feetand lower leg should form a 90° angle as thisrequires the least muscular effort to hold in place.4. Where rapid, continued pedal movements arerequired, the pedal should be toe operated, with thefulcrum at the base of the heel.5. The leg exerts maximum force with the knee angleat about 130-150°.6. When maximum pedal pressures are sought, thefore-and-aft seat reference point to pedal distanceshould be about 47.5% of the height of the driver.When great force is not needed, the distance shouldbe increased for comfort.7. As pedals are moved laterally from the midline of thebody in plan view, force exerted decreases. It falls to90% when the pedal is placed 3” to either side; to73% with a 6.7” shift; and to a 63% with a 10.2” shift.Hence, it should not be placed more than 3-5” fromthe midline.8. For frequently but not continuously used legoperated pedals like the brake, a pressure of about30% of maximum exertable is reasonable. For continuous usage pedals like the accelerator,resistance should not exceed 10 pounds. For toeoperated pedals, the best resistance is from 6.5 to 9pounds.9. Pedals operated by ankle action should have amaximum travel of 2”, corresponding to an angle of 10-12°. When heavy footgear is anticipated, pedaltravel should be increased.10. For all foot controls, the direction of travel should bedown, or away from the body, in line with the longaxis of the lower leg and roughly parallel to the mid-sagittal plane of the body.STATIC FIT – Armed with research knowledge, studentdesigners began by obtaining physique data of theintended operators. The test subjects - 3 males and onefemale - were given standard racing gear to wear andwere sat against a mock firewall oriented at 20° from thevertical. Important parameters like hip joint height, knee-torso angle, knee angle, thigh-seat angle, degree of ankle bend, head to roof clearance, elbow and wristangles were explored.DYNAMIC FIT – Drivers were moved from their staticpositions until muscle tension, such as on wrist, ankleand the under part of the thigh were eased. The driverswere made to flex and abduct their elbows to explore theenvelope of hand control. The range of visibility was alsochecked in order to design a non-obstructive frontbracing structure. Driver egress was mocked in order todesign a practical structure that did not hinder anemergency escape. Finally, different side impactmember heights were explored to locate the optimalposition for egress and protection during a rock crawlevent.SEATING – A custom Kirky seat is used to increasedriver comfort. It is made of MIG welded .125” thick 5052grade aluminum. The seat is as low as practical in thevehicle to lower center of gravity (c.o.g). From practicalexperimentation, the previous car’s c.o.g was measuredto be 22” +/- 2”. It was deemed desirable to decreasethis to 20” to reduce possibility of roll-over. The seatsfrom previous years led to distraction because the ribsupports tightened unsuitably around the driver’s ribcage. Hence, the existing seat was modified by thefabrication group. In the process, 5 pounds of weight inmetal was dropped. Students also decided that a tub-likeseating envelope around the driver would be an optimalplan. This not only increased driver comfort by adding tothe range of motion of leg movement but also modeledthe exterior of the Baja car like a “hull” for future water competitions.CAD MODEING – The hard points obtained through theabove exercise were then transferred to Solid works.CAD designers on the team used these points to createdatum planes that the structural features of the vehiclewould reference. ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED:1. In the CAD design stage, designers could haveemployed a generic 95
male 3D model. However,this alone was deemed insufficient since the modelwasn’t representative of a fully geared driver nor didit account for gender variation.2. The population sample size for fit analysis couldhave been increased. However, from the team’sstandpoint, this would entail an unprofitableexpenditure of time and effort.3. 3D laser scanners are used by some schools tomodel part geometry to custom fit a driver.  Whilethis is certainly attractive, it would incur unnecessarycosts.
OBJECTIVE - The design goal in this department was toproduce a 40:1 overall transmission ratio power systemthat is reliable, serviceable, safe and easy tomanufacture. Following is a description of the major systems comprising the powertrain.ENGINE – The air-cooled engine used on the car is a 4stroke, 18.64 in
(305cc) displacement Briggs & Strattonmotor of “Over Head Valve” type (OHV). It is supplied toteams by Briggs and Stratton at sponsored cost and is toremain stock as per the Rulebook.  It has a .75” key-way PTO shaft as output and a compression ratio of 8.0to 1. The engine weighs roughly 64 lbs. Engine idle RPMis set to 1750 RPM. At competition, the governor isusually set at max 3800 RPM, well below its RPM