25/03/2012 What is Intelligence1/19.drtomoconnor.com/4125/4125lect01.htm
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
"Common ene i no o common"
Intelligence is different from information-processing. It's not the sort of brain intelligence, orsmall-letter
intelligence that psychologists study. Intelligence is "
ece knoledge of an enem,he kind of knoledge hich and independenl of he mean b hich i i obained and he poce b hich i i diilled
" (Troy 1991). Intelligence is the same as "
foeknoledge, a kind of pophec-like caf, hich i ala on ale, in ee pa of he old, oad fiend and foealike
" (Dulles 1963). Intelligence is never an end in itself, but always directed toward other ends,such as winning a war, coming out ahead of the competition, or aiding the investigation of crime, inwhich case the title "intelligence analyst" is practically synonymous with "crime analyst."Intelligence is also a
, since it tries to analyze and predict political, economic, andsocial behavior. Social science is value-free, and intelligence is somewhat similar in trying not tobe completely partisan or political. Like criminology, intelligence tries to be policy-relevant as"
he collecion and anali of inelligence infomaion elean o a goenmen' fomlaionand implemenaion of polic o fhe i naional eci inee and o deal ih hea fomacal o poenial adeaie
" (Shulsky & Schmitt 2002). Intelligence can be thought of as aPROCESS (the means by which secret information is collected, analyzed, and disseminated), as aPRODUCT (the analyses, reports, and briefings that are useful or actionable), and anORGANIZATION (a collection of units or agencies that carry out intelligence work). As aprocess, intelligence is illustrated below:In law enforcement as well as government in general, the way it's usually put is by sayingintelligence is
a aff, no a line fncion
. Organizational theorists might call it an aide-de-campfunction. This means that intelligence is almost always an add-on, luxury item for mostorganizations. It also means that intelligence organization usually involves a community of equalsor loose confederation of agencies trying to work together on common priorities. Hence, the word"community" instead of "system" is frequently encountered, as in the entity known as
(IC), consisting of about 15 agencies that try to work together (see graphicbelow). Criminal justice, has of course, always strived to work as a system, and it's ironic thatpeople-processing organizations tend to organize in terms of systems while information-processingones do not.Centralized or systematized intelligence is of fairly recent origin. It also remains fairly elusive.The "central" in CIA was never intended to be "central" in the sense of supporting ALL