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What is Intelligence? Breakdown of US Intelligence Agencies

What is Intelligence? Breakdown of US Intelligence Agencies

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Published by aynoneemouse
Includes this nugget: 'By 1980, the NSA was the largest
agency in the Intelligence Community, employing more people (70,000) than all the employees in the rest of the agencies combined'.
Includes this nugget: 'By 1980, the NSA was the largest
agency in the Intelligence Community, employing more people (70,000) than all the employees in the rest of the agencies combined'.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: aynoneemouse on Apr 13, 2012
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25/03/2012 What is Intelligence1/19.drtomoconnor.com/4125/4125lect01.htm
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
"Common ene i no o common" 
(V)
Intelligence is different from information-processing. It's not the sort of brain intelligence, orsmall-letter
intelligence that psychologists study. Intelligence is "
ece knoledge of an enem,he kind of knoledge hich and independenl of he mean b hich i i obained and he poce b hich i i diilled 
" (Troy 1991). Intelligence is the same as "
 foeknoledge, a kind of  pophec-like caf, hich i ala on ale, in ee pa of he old, oad fiend and foealike
" (Dulles 1963). Intelligence is never an end in itself, but always directed toward other ends,such as winning a war, coming out ahead of the competition, or aiding the investigation of crime, inwhich case the title "intelligence analyst" is practically synonymous with "crime analyst."Intelligence is also a
social science
, since it tries to analyze and predict political, economic, andsocial behavior. Social science is value-free, and intelligence is somewhat similar in trying not tobe completely partisan or political. Like criminology, intelligence tries to be policy-relevant as"
he collecion and anali of inelligence infomaion elean o a goenmen' fomlaionand implemenaion of polic o fhe i naional eci inee and o deal ih hea fomacal o poenial adeaie
" (Shulsky & Schmitt 2002). Intelligence can be thought of as aPROCESS (the means by which secret information is collected, analyzed, and disseminated), as aPRODUCT (the analyses, reports, and briefings that are useful or actionable), and anORGANIZATION (a collection of units or agencies that carry out intelligence work). As aprocess, intelligence is illustrated below:In law enforcement as well as government in general, the way it's usually put is by sayingintelligence is
a aff, no a line fncion
. Organizational theorists might call it an aide-de-campfunction. This means that intelligence is almost always an add-on, luxury item for mostorganizations. It also means that intelligence organization usually involves a community of equalsor loose confederation of agencies trying to work together on common priorities. Hence, the word"community" instead of "system" is frequently encountered, as in the entity known as
heinelligence commni
(IC), consisting of about 15 agencies that try to work together (see graphicbelow). Criminal justice, has of course, always strived to work as a system, and it's ironic thatpeople-processing organizations tend to organize in terms of systems while information-processingones do not.Centralized or systematized intelligence is of fairly recent origin. It also remains fairly elusive.The "central" in CIA was never intended to be "central" in the sense of supporting ALL
 
25/03/2012 What is Intelligence2/19.drtomoconnor.com/4125/4125lect01.htm
interdepartmental and intergovernmental goals. It was only intended to be the place which lookedat things no one else was looking at. The problems with implementing a system characteristic playout in the problems with how to head the agency. For many years, the systemic aspects werepersonified by a DCI (Director of Central Intelligence, head of the CIA), but since the 9/11Commission, a new position of DNI (Director of National Intelligence) was established to ensuregreater inter-agency coordination. Traditional management responsibilities include theresponsibility of providing intel to policymakers and commanders (mid-level desk officers are alsoincluded), and this is primarily accomplished via the coordination of NIEs (National IntelligenceEstimates) and other intelligence products. The preparation of NIEs is supported by a NIC(
 Naional Inelligence Conci
 
), a group of senior analysts who are substantive experts from thepublic and private sector. Within the NIC, some senior analysts are known as NIOs (NationalIntelligence Officers) and are in charge of various topics, like Africa, East Asia, Economics andGlobal Issues, Europe, Intelligence Assurance, Latin America, Military Issues, Near East andSouth Asia, Russia and Eurasia, Terrorism, Transnational Threats, Warning, and Weapons of Mass Destruction and Proliferation. NIOs work for the DCI (or DNI) in the latter's capacity ashead of the IC, not as head of the CIA. NIOs do not require Senate confirmation and come from avariety of backgrounds, such as from academics and the private sector.The CIA of yesteryear is gone. The DCI position was established to be the Presidents principaladvisor with regards to national security intelligence since the 1947 National Security Act. Itplaced the DCI in charge of the CIA and made him the titular head of the U.S. intelligencecommunity. Over the years, the CIA was an easy target of criticism, being accused of everythingfrom AIDS to crack cocaine to missing the breakup of the Soviet Union (all untrue). However, itdid fail to predict the attacks of 9/11, incorrectly assessed Iraqs WMD program, and morerecently has suffered from leaks and petty jealousies. The Intelligence Reform and TerrorismPrevention Act of 2004 removed the DCI from a prominent role, and replaced him with a Directorof National Intelligence (DNI), who not only has the Presidents ear, but also has budgetary controlover the Intelligence Community (something the DCI never had).Additional capabilities and responsibilities exist within a number of agencies which providestrategic intelligence or carry out what might be called "security studies." For example, under theNational Foreign Intelligence Program, there are several tactical military intelligence and securityorganizations, as well as those responsible for security responses to transnational threats, includingterrorism, cyber warfare and computer security, covert proliferation of weapons of massdestruction, narcotics trafficking, transnational crime, and international organized crime. In fact,some 56 government bureaus exist which produce intelligence reports related to national securityand/or foreign policy; some 50 agencies have some kind of jurisdiction over protecting the nation'svital interests; and some 46 agencies are producers or consumers of homeland security intelligence"fused" with foreign intelligence. All in all, intelligence is a vast enterprise which spends at leastmore than thirty billion dollars a year trying to be successful at staying one step ahead of anyadversaries.Intelligence is
infomaion fo acion
, in its most basic form, consisting of: (1) strategic
 foeigninelligence
, or information relating to the capabilities, intentions, and activities of foreign powers;(2)
coneinelligence
, which is information or activities conducted to protect against espionageand the penetration of US assets by foreign intelligence services; and (3)
coe acion
, which areclandestine activities designed to influence events abroad without the role of the United Statesbeing apparent. Intelligence plays a crucial role at achieving national security goals. For example,as Silver et. al. (2005) point out, intelligence can help maintain world peace and order by reducing
 
25/03/2012 What is Intelligence3/19.drtomoconnor.com/4125/4125lect01.htm
the risks of international conflict. It can also help the United States better compete, politically andeconomically. It can greatly assist diplomatic and military efforts to stop the spread of unconventional weaponry. And finally, it plays a self-evident role in defending or protecting theUnited States and its allies by combating the threats of terrorism, transnational crime, and othersources of international violence. 
 N:       NIC  A 2004,  '   C G,    15     M C  N G I. I '   NID      D 2004    S.2774. A    :

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