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Humanoid Design Final Report

Humanoid Design Final Report

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Published by Gaurav Kumar
own robotic design report.
own robotic design report.

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Published by: Gaurav Kumar on Apr 14, 2012
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01/02/2014

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1
CHAPTER-1INTRODUCTION
1.1
 
INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTICS:
Robotics is the engineering science and technology of robots, and their design, manufacture,application, and structural disposition. Robotics is related to
 Electronics, Mechanics, and Software.
Today commercial and industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or moreaccurately and reliably than humans. They are also employed in jobs which are too dirty, dangerous,or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, and packing;transport; earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and massproduction of consumer and industrial goods. A Robot is software controllable mechanical devicethat uses sensors to guide one or more end effectors through programmed motion in workspace in
order to manipulate physical objects. Many of today‘s robots are robotic arms. In this exhibit, we
will focus on one very flexible kind of robot, which looks similar to a certain part of your body. Itcalled a joint arm robot.At its simplest, a robot is machine that can be programmed to perform a variety of jobs,which usually involve moving or handling objects. Robots can range from simple machines to highlycomplex, computer controlled device. Most robots are designed to be a helping hand. They helppeople with tasks that would be difficult, unsafe for a real person to be alone. Robotics applicationoften involves simple, tedious, repetitive tasks such as the loading and unloading machines. Theyalso include tasks that must be performed in harsh environment such as spray and handling of toxicmaterials.People are more likely to identify an object as a robot when it has the rudimentary sections of a living being. People look for eyes and a mouth (generally a face), legs, and a torso, as though theywere examining an insect or exotic animal. From an anatomical perspective, robot parts generally fitinto one or more of the following categories in different fields.The inspiration for the design of robot manipulator is the human arm, but with somedifferences. For example, a robot arm can extend by telescoping that is, by sliding cylindrical sectionone over another length the arm. Robot arms also can be constructed so that they bend like anelephant trunk. Grippers, or end effectors, are designed to mimic the function and the structure of thehuman hand. Many robots are equipped with special purpose grippers to grapes particular devicessuch as a rack of test tube or an arc welder.
 
 
2
The joints of a robotic arm are usually driven by electrical motors. In most robots, thegripper is moved from one position to another, changing its orientation. A computer calculates the joint angles needed to move the gripper to the desired position in the process known as inversekinematics. Some multi joints arms are equipped with servo, or feedback, controllers that receiveinput from a computer. Each joint in the arm has a device to measure its angle and send that value tothe controller. If the actual angle of the does not equal to the computed angle desired position, the
servo controller moves the joint until the arm‘s angle matches the computed angle. Controllers also
must process sensor information collected from cameras that locate objects to be grasped. They musttouch sensors on grippers that regulate the grasping force.Any robot designed to move in an unstructured or unknown environment will requiremultiple sensors and control, such as ultrasonic or infrared sensors, to avoid obstacles, Robots suchas the National Aeronautics and sensors.
1.1.1 Components of robots:-
 
 
Power Source
 
Action and Feedback(Actuation)
 
Sensors
 
Manipulation
 
Body(Locomotion)
 
Control and Feedback 
Power Source:
 
Almost every robot contains electronic components. The electrical power supply consists of araw power source, a regulating circuit to stabilize and process the source, and a switch to activateand deactivate. Except in extreme circumstances, hobby robots are supplied power from popularconsumer batteries.Solar power is also a
n option. Because light isn‘t constantly avai
lable, rudimentary solarpowered robots operating in repeating charge and discharge cycles, powering off between bursts of activity. More sophisticated solar-powered robots recharge batteries during optimal lightingconditions, with the batteries maintaining power to the brains during dark conditions.At present; mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be:
 
 
3
 
Hydraulics (compressed liquids)
 
Organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)
 
Still untested energy sources (eg Cell, ...)
 
Radioactive source
Actuators:-
Actuators are like the
"muscles"
of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy intomovement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors, but there are many others, poweredby electricity, chemicals, and compressed air.
 
Motors:
 
The vast majority of robots use electric motors, including brushed and brushlessDC on many robots and CNC machines, as their main can specify how much to turn, formore precise control, rather than a "spin and see where it went" approach.
 
Fig.1
Motors.

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