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Hydraulic Design of Flow Measuring Structure

Hydraulic Design of Flow Measuring Structure

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21.1INTRDUT
Experienced water providers and users can use this chapter as a quick review of hydraulicprinciples related to water measurement and its relation to hydraulic design for environ-mental considerations.The hydraulic design of flow measuring structures usually confronts the engineer withtwo opportunities. One is the design of measurement structures in a retrofit situation andthe other is in original project design. The retrofit mode is usually difficult and requiresmuch innovation just to obtain passable function within the space and sizing limitationsand other constraints usually imposed. Because of the increasing emphasis on quantifyingflow rates and volumes in most aspects of water resource planning and management,theretrofit applications currently dominate the design problems.Most textbooks deal with recommending ideal installation situations and retrofit pro- jects appear to be unable to comply without great economic impact. This too frequentlycan lead to arbitrary compromises that produce poor measurement performance. Evennew installations may be limited by space requirements. This may force design decisionsinto the final construction that compromise accuracy. This chapter will strive to show thedesign concepts available,particularly those useful for designing both new and retrofitinstallations,and will point out measurement behaviors to be expected from various com-promises. This chapter suggests those deviations that cause least impact and guides thedesigner to choices that may be hydraulically acceptable and still meet structural goals.Of the numerous flowmetering methods available to the hydraulic engineer,most arebased on well-established hydraulic principles and are amenable to design manipulationsof size,shape,and response. While this aspect of flow measurement is documented in sev-eral handbooks and texts,the design and retrofit of sites to accommodate and facilitatemeasurement is not as well described or is described in a scattered assortment of booksand articles.Pipeline flows of water are usually less complicated to measure than open-channelflows,most obviously because the flow area does not change significantly with flow rate.
CHAPTER 21
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OFFLOW MEASURINGSTRUCTURES
21.1
John A. Replogle and Albert J. Clemmens
USDA–ARS Water Conservation LaboratoryPhoenix,Arizona
Clifford A. Pugh
USBureau of Reclamation, Denver,Colorado
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
 
Consequently,many applications of pipeline flows are held to stricter accuracy standardsthan channel flows can reasonably achieve. Thus,channel flows and their measurementare usually limited to large delivery volumes and to accuracies acceptable to the relatedactivities,such as sewer flows and irrigation deliveries.The purpose of this chapter is to consolidate design information for evaluating a flowmeasurement site,selecting a flow measuring system,and adapting the measuring site tooptimize measuring and other functions that may be desired from the site. Emphasis willbe on open-channel flow measurements because that is a likely need of the hydraulic engi-neer. Pipe flowmeters in water supply will also be discussed in lesser detail because themajor application of the many types of pipe flowmeters is well covered in the chemicaland petroleum industry literature.Experienced readers may wish to further investigate and seek more advanced refer-ences in hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Extensive information on fluid meter theory anddetailed material for determining coefficients for tube-type meters is given in AmericanSociety,of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) (1959,1971) and revisited with modernupdates in books by Spitzer (1990) and Miller (1996). Brater and King (1982) have a thor-ough discussion of general critical depth relations and detailed relationships for mostcommon hydraulic flow section shapes in open channels. Bos (1989) covers a broad seg-ment of openchannel water measurement devices.
21.2HYDRAULIC CONCEPTS RELATED TO WATEMEASUREMENT 
21.2.1Basic Concepts for Pipe and Channel Flows
Flow can be classified into closed conduit flow and open-channel flow.
Open-channel flow
conditions occur whenever the flowing stream has a free or unconstrained surfacethat is open to the atmosphere. Flows in canals or in vented pipelines that are not flowingfull are typical examples.In hydraulics,a pipe is any closed conduit that carries water under pressure. The filledconduit may be square,rectangular,or any other shape,but is usually round. If flow isoccurring in a conduit but does not completely fill it,the flow is not considered pipe orclosed conduit flow,but is classified as open-channel flow.Flow rate in a pipeline responds mainly to the pressure gradient or head difference thatexists between two points along the pipeline,modified by the frictional resistance to flowcaused by pipe length,pipe roughness,bends,restrictions,changes in conduit shape andsize,the nature of the fluid flowing,and the cross-sectional area of the pipe.In open-channel flows,the pressure gradient,or energy grade line,is controlledmainly by the force due to gravity,which is influenced by the channel slope,resistancefrom the channel wall roughness,the channel shape,and the flow area. The fluid is usu-ally water.Basic flow metering in both pipe flow and open channels depends on determining anaverage flow velocity by some means and combining it with the flow cross-sectional area.For open channels,a common means involves current meter measurements where meteredpoint velocities are applied to their applicable subareas and summed over a flow cross sec-tion. Exceptions include tracer-dilution techniques that do not require flow area or veloc-ity. The uses of tracer techniques are applicable to special pump calibrations and some dif-ficult channel flows (mountain streams). They are avoided for most city water distributionsystems,sewer flows and irrigation applications because of the general expense with han-
21.2
Chapter Twenty-One
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF FLOW MEASURING STRUCTURES
 
dling the equipment and doing the analysis. The most used techniques applicable to open-channel systems,including sewer flows and irrigation canal flow measurements,dependon exploiting the special velocity properties of critical flow,as discussed in a section21.2.3.
ontinuity equation.
The first basic equation for water flowing in either pipes or chan-nels is the continuity equation,which simply states that discharge rate (volumetric flowper unit time),
Q
,is equal to flow cross-sectional area,
 A
,times flow mean velocity,
,through the flow cross section,or
QA
(21.1)
 Bernoulli energy equation.
Another basic equation involves energy relations and isalso applicable to both pipe and channel flows. The most familiar form is for closed pipeflow,wherein the basic energy principles are described by the Bernoulli energy equation.For two locations along a pipe at stations 1 and 2,(Fig. 21.1),the Bernoulli equation canbe expressed as
 z
1
h
1
g
12
 z
2
h
2
g
22
constant(21.2)where the terms are expressed in length dimensions as
 z
the height from an arbitraryreference plane (datum)
h
the pressure head
average velocity through the pipecross-section at the designated location
2
 /2
g
the velocity head the gravitationalconstant
1 ,2
subscripts denoting the respective locations along the pipeline.This equation is based on uniform velocity across the conduit area and no energy loss-es. However,in real fluid flows,nonuniform velocities exist and friction causes energyconversion to heat. Typically,these velocities are zero at the walls and reach a maximumprofile velocity near the center of the flow. If the flow is viscous flow in a round pipe,theflow profile is parabolic,that is,“bullet-shaped.If the velocity is fully turbulent,the bul-let-shape is much flattened,with steep velocity gradients near the wall and nearly uniformprofile across the remainder of the pipe. These idealized profiles can be skewed drastical-ly by regulating valves,structures,conduit bends and other flow obstructions. Therefore,application of these equations depends on knowing,or controlling,the velocity profile sothat the average velocity in the conduit cross section can be inferred.
 
Hydraulic Design of Flow Measuring Structures
21.3
FIGURE 21.1
Energy balance in pipe flow.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF FLOW MEASURING STRUCTURES

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