dling the equipment and doing the analysis. The most used techniques applicable to open-channel systems,including sewer flows and irrigation canal flow measurements,dependon exploiting the special velocity properties of critical flow,as discussed in a section21.2.3.
The first basic equation for water flowing in either pipes or chan-nels is the continuity equation,which simply states that discharge rate (volumetric flowper unit time),
,is equal to flow cross-sectional area,
,times flow mean velocity,
,through the flow cross section,or
Bernoulli energy equation.
Another basic equation involves energy relations and isalso applicable to both pipe and channel flows. The most familiar form is for closed pipeflow,wherein the basic energy principles are described by the Bernoulli energy equation.For two locations along a pipe at stations 1 and 2,(Fig. 21.1),the Bernoulli equation canbe expressed as
constant(21.2)where the terms are expressed in length dimensions as
the height from an arbitraryreference plane (datum)
the pressure head
average velocity through the pipecross-section at the designated location
the velocity head the gravitationalconstant
subscripts denoting the respective locations along the pipeline.This equation is based on uniform velocity across the conduit area and no energy loss-es. However,in real fluid flows,nonuniform velocities exist and friction causes energyconversion to heat. Typically,these velocities are zero at the walls and reach a maximumprofile velocity near the center of the flow. If the flow is viscous flow in a round pipe,theflow profile is parabolic,that is,“bullet-shaped.”If the velocity is fully turbulent,the bul-let-shape is much flattened,with steep velocity gradients near the wall and nearly uniformprofile across the remainder of the pipe. These idealized profiles can be skewed drastical-ly by regulating valves,structures,conduit bends and other flow obstructions. Therefore,application of these equations depends on knowing,or controlling,the velocity profile sothat the average velocity in the conduit cross section can be inferred.