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Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
Rates of HIV Progression
Why we use functions
Function Deﬁned
Here is a function
Some functions are multivariate
Not all mappings are functions
Cryptography
Modulo Function
Examples:
Implmenting a +2 Caesar Shift
The real numbers can be represented as a line
The set of real numbers is unbounded
Function as a black box machine
Yes, we can combine machines!
Composition puts 2 machines in series
In Class Problem
Similar problem
Which of these is a graph of a function
Calculus and Science
Catalog of Functions
Nested Subsets of Functions
Inverse Functions
Horizontal Line Test
In Class Challenge
Transcendentals
In class challenge
Laws of Exponentials
In class challenge
Trigonmetric functions are transcendental
Limits at Finite Points
What’s “funny” about the signum function at x = 0?
Informal Deﬁnition of Limit
Tatto fact #1
Other problems
Tatto fact #2
One-sided limits
Tatto fact #3
Recap of Pathologies
Limits of functions that become inﬁnite at points
Tatto fact #4
A function may fail to have a limit at a point because
Knowing Limit from f(x) and g(x)
Direct Substitution?
Rationalize the Numerator
Squeeze Theorem
Strategies for Solving Limit Problems
In Class Work
Can there be a limit as x→∞??
Peek at the deﬁnition of the limit
Review
Limits and Graphs of f(x)
Continuity
Recall the “funny” signum function
Recall these graphs
Continuity is stronger than “limit exists”
In class work
Continuity and Zero-Crossings
Intermediate Value Theorem
Existence of Roots
Limiting behavior of rational functions
Review
If we know function we can write limit
Other approaches to estimating local rate
We can try this one too
Are all these methods equivalent?
Limitations (no pun) of some of these methods
Problems, pitfalls,
Calculate the derivative of
Calculate the derivative
Do for
Notice
Continuous but non-differentiable functions
Continuous But Non-Differentiable
Stricter and Stricterer
In Class Exercise
Power Rule
In Class Challenge (Again)
Product Rule Applied to Constant Functions
Is there an easier way?
The Chain Rule
The Quotient Rule
In Class Challenge
Interpretation of g′(x)
Summary
Derivative of sin(x)
Derivative of cos(x)
Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
dx [arccsc(x)]
dx [arcsec(x)]
dx [arccot(x)]
Higher Derivatives
Interpretation of Common Derivatives
Acceleration Example:
Position→Velocity→Acceleration
Graphically
Logarithmic Differentiation
Group Exercise
Functions as models
Solution
Same idea–slight variation
Error of Prediction
Note on Error
Differentials
Differentials and Error
•We’d really like to know ∆f – this is the corresponding error
Or another way
Approximate Error
Acutal error
Other interpretations of df
Actual Value
Consider (a,b)
Extreme Value Theorem
Critical Number
Fermat’s Theorem
Rolle’s Theorem
Rolle’s Theorem is a Special Case of MVT
Does this make sense?
Increasing/Decreasing
Inﬂection point and derivative
First Derivative Test
Suppose c is a critical number of f(x)
Drawing the graph
Group Work
Second Derivative Test
Meaning of Indeterminate
Other Indeterminate Forms of Limits
L’Hospital’s Rule
Guidlines Using L’Hospital’s Rule
Summary of Curve Sketching
Optimization
Antiderivatives as parallel functions
Areas and Distances With Limits
Special case
Example
Lesson from Gauss...to his schoolmaster
Gauss’ Response (Minutes Later)
Back to Areas as Limits of Sums
Summary of Areas Found
Is there a pattern??
The Deﬁnite Integral
deﬁnite integral
Observations Concerning Deﬁnite Integral
Back to Our Interesting Observation
Summary of Results for f(x) = x2
If we were Biologists
If we were Physicists
If we were Mathematicians
Clariﬁcations
What Points To Use
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 2)
Proof of FTC (Part 2)
Choosing C in General
Differentiable vs Integrable
Indeﬁnite Integrals
FTC and Antiderivatives
Rates and Net Change
Formally
Volume of a Sphere
Area of Cross-Section
Volumes as Integrals
Volumes by Washers
In Class Problems
Formula for Volume By Shells
Tatto Facts: Slicing and Shells
Cylidrical Shells Tactics
Find the following indeﬁnite integral
Facts
Suggestions
In Class Examples
Holling Type I Equation
Try to integrate the Holling Type I
Dividing by x does not help
Improper Rational Function
Integrating the Holling Type I Equation
Long Division
Long Division of Polynomials
Making Holling Type I Proper
Holling Type II Equation
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Why Calculus?

# Why Calculus?

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09/18/2013

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