Here is a function

Some functions are multivariate

Not all mappings are functions

Cryptography

Modulo Function

Examples:

Implmenting a +2 Caesar Shift

The real numbers can be represented as a
line

The set of real numbers is unbounded

Function as a black box machine

Yes, we can combine machines!

Composition puts 2 machines in series

In Class Problem

Answer

Similar problem

Answer:

Which of these is a graph of a function

Answers

Calculus and Science

Catalog of Functions

Nested Subsets of Functions

Inverse Functions

Horizontal Line Test

In Class Challenge

Transcendentals

In class challenge

Laws of Exponentials

In class challenge

Trigonmetric functions are transcendental

Limits at Finite Points

What’s “funny” about the signum function at
x = 0?

Informal Deﬁnition of Limit

Tatto fact #1

Other problems

Tatto fact #2

One-sided limits

Tatto fact #3

Recap of Pathologies

Limits of functions that become inﬁnite at points

Tatto fact #4

A function may fail to have a limit at a point
because

Knowing Limit from f(x) and g(x)

Additional Limit Laws

Direct Substitution?

Rationalize the Numerator

Squeeze Theorem

Strategies for Solving Limit Problems

In Class Work

Can there be a limit as x→∞??

Peek at the deﬁnition of the limit

Review

Limits and Graphs of f(x)

Answer (Example 10 p. 142)

Continuity

Recall the “funny” signum function

Recall these graphs

Continuity is stronger than “limit exists”

In class work

Continuity and Zero-Crossings

Intermediate Value Theorem

Existence of Roots

Limiting behavior of rational functions

Review

Answer

If we know function we can write limit

Other approaches to estimating local rate

We can try this one too

Are all these methods equivalent?

Limitations (no pun) of some of these methods

Problems, pitfalls,

Calculate the derivative of

Calculate the derivative

Do for

Notice

Continuous but non-differentiable functions

Continuous But Non-Differentiable

Stricter and Stricterer

In Class Exercise

Power Rule

In Class Challenge (Again)

Product Rule Applied to Constant Functions

Is there an easier way?

The Chain Rule

The Quotient Rule

In Class Challenge

Interpretation of g′(x)

Summary

Derivative of sin(x)

Derivative of cos(x)

Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

dx [arccsc(x)]

dx [arcsec(x)]

dx [arccot(x)]

Higher Derivatives

Logarithmic Differentiation

Group Exercise

Functions as models

Solution

Turning problem on its head

Same idea–slight variation

Error of Prediction

Note on Error

Differentials

Differentials and Error

•We’d really like to know ∆f – this is the
corresponding error

Or another way

Approximate Error

Acutal error

Other interpretations of df

Actual Value

Consider (a,b)

Extreme Value Theorem

Critical Number

Fermat’s Theorem

Rolle’s Theorem

Rolle’s Theorem is a Special Case of MVT

Does this make sense?

Increasing/Decreasing

Inﬂection point and derivative

First Derivative Test

Suppose c is a critical number of f(x)

Drawing the graph

Group Work

Second Derivative Test

Meaning of Indeterminate

Other Indeterminate Forms of Limits

L’Hospital’s Rule

Guidlines Using L’Hospital’s Rule

Optimization

Antiderivatives as parallel functions

Areas and Distances With Limits

Special case

Example

Lesson from Gauss...to his schoolmaster

Gauss’ Response (Minutes Later)

Back to Areas as Limits of Sums

Summary of Areas Found

Is there a pattern??

The Deﬁnite Integral

deﬁnite integral

Observations Concerning Deﬁnite Integral

Back to Our Interesting Observation

Summary of Results for f(x) = x2

If we were Biologists

If we were Physicists

If we were Mathematicians

Clariﬁcations

What Points To Use

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 2)

Proof of FTC (Part 2)

Choosing C in General

Differentiable vs Integrable

Indeﬁnite Integrals

FTC and Antiderivatives

Rates and Net Change

Formally

Volumes as Integrals

Volumes by Washers

In Class Problems

Formula for Volume By Shells

Tatto Facts: Slicing and Shells

Cylidrical Shells Tactics

Find the following indeﬁnite integral

Facts

Check our answer!

Suggestions

In Class Examples

Holling Type I Equation

Try to integrate the Holling Type I

Dividing by x does not help

Improper Rational Function

Integrating the Holling Type I Equation

Long Division

Long Division of Polynomials

Making Holling Type I Proper

Holling Type II Equation