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Table Of Contents

Chapter 1 —Introduction
Chapter 2—Principles of Thermoelectric Thermometry
2.0 Introduction
2.1.2 Absolute Seebeck Characteristics
2.1.3 Inhomogeneous Thermoelements
2.1.4 Relative Seebeck Characteristics
2.3 Historic Background
2.3.1 The Seebeck Effect
2.3.2 The Peltier Effect
2.3.3 The Thomson Effect
2.4.2 The Mechanisms of Thermoelectricity
2.5 Summary of Chapter 2
2.6 References
2.7 Nomenclature
Chapter 3—Thermocouple Materials
3.1 Common Thermocouple Types
3.1.1 General Application Data
TABLE 3.2—Nominal Seebeck coefficients
3.1.2 Properties of Thermoelement Materials
TABLE 3.3—Nominal chemical composition of thermoelements
TABLE 3.4—Environmental limitations of thermoelements
3.2 Extension Wires
3.2.1 General Information
3.2.2 Sources of Error
FIG. 3.2—Thermal emf of thermoelements relative to platinum
3.3 Nonstandardized Thermocouple Types
3.3.1 Platinum Types
TABLE 3.12—Platinum-iridium versus palladium thermocouples
TABLE 3.15—Platinel thermocouples
FIG. 3.9—Thermal emf of nickel-chromium alloy thermocouples
3.3.6 Tungsten-Rhenium Types
3.3.7 Gold Types
TABLE 3.18—Tungsten-rhenium thermocouples
3.4 Compatibility Problems at High Temperatures
3.5 References
Chapter 4—Typical Thermocouple Designs
4.1 Sensing Element Assemblies
4.2 Nonceramic Insulation
FIG. 4.1—Typical thermocouple element assemblies
4.3 Hard-Fired Ceramic Insulators
FIG. 4.3—Examples of drilled thermowelb
4.5 Circuit Connections
4.6 Complete Assemblies
4.7 Selection Guide for Protecting Tubes
TABLE 4.5—Selection guide for protecting tubes
5.1 General Considerations
5.2 Construction
5.3 Insulation
5.4 Thermocouple Wires
5.5 Sheath
5.6 Combinations of Sheath, Insulation, and Wire
5.7 Characteristics of the Basic Material
5.8 Testing
5.9 Measuring Junction
5.10 Terminations
5.11 Installation of the Finished Thermocouple
Chapter 6—Thermocouple Output Measurements
Chapter 7—Reference Junctions
FIG. 7.2—Recommended ice bath for reference junction
Chapter 8—Calibration of Thermocouples
8.1 General Considerations
8.1.1 Temperature Scale
8.1.2 Reference Thermometers
8.1.3 Annealing
8.1.4 Measurement of Emf
8.].5 Homogeneity
8.1.6 General Calibration Methods
5.7.7 Calibration Uncertainties
8.2 Calibration Using Fixed Points
8.2.1 Freezing Points
8.2.2 Melting Points
8.3 Calibration Using Comparison Metiiods
8.3.1 Laboratory Furnaces
8.3.2 Stirred Liquid Baths
8.3.3 Fixed Installations
8.4 Interpolation Methods
8.5 Single Thermoelement Materials
8.5.1 Test Specimen
Reference Thermoelement
FIG. 8.7—Circuit diagram for thermal emftest
8.5.2 Reference Thermoelement
8.5.3 Reference Junction
8.5.4 Measuring Junction
8.5.5 Test Temperature Medium
8.5.6 EmfIndicator
8.5.7 Procedure
8.6 References
8.7 Bibliography
Chapter 9—Application Considerations
9.1 Temperature Measurement in Fluids
9.1.1 Response
9.7.2 Recovery
9.1.3 Thermowells
9.1.4 Thermal Analysis of an Installation
9.2 Surface Temperature Measurement
9.2.1 General Remarks
9.2.2 Installation Methods
FIG. 9.2—Common attachment methods
FIG. 9.3—Separated junction
FIG. 9.4—Types of junction using metal sheathed thermocouples
9.2.3 Sources of Error
9.2.4 Error Determination
9.2.5 Procedures for Minimizing Error
9.2.6 Commercial Surface Thermocouples
FIG. 9.7—Commercially mailable types of surface thermocouples
FIG. 9.8—Commercial probe thermocouple junctions
Chapter 10—Reference Tables for Thermocouples
]0.].l Thermocouple Types
10.1.2 Initial Calibration Tolerances
10.2 Thermocouple Reference Tables
Chapter 11 —Cryogenics
11.1 General Remarks
Chapter 12—Temperature Measurement Uncertainty
Chapter 13—Terminology'
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Manual on the Use of Thermocouple in Temperature Measurement

Manual on the Use of Thermocouple in Temperature Measurement

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Published by Vasudha Iyengar R

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Published by: Vasudha Iyengar R on Apr 14, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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