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Published by: 9290010274 on Apr 14, 2012
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National Policy on Disaster Management(NPDM)
1. Preamble
The Context
Disasters disrupt progress and destroy the hard-earned fruits of painstaking developmental efforts, often pushing nations, in quest forprogress, back by several decades. Thus, efficient management of disasters,rather than mere response to their occurrence has, in recent times, receivedincreased attention both within India and abroad. This is as much a result of the recognition of the increasing frequency and intensity of disasters as it isan acknowledgement that good governance, in a caring and civilised society,needs to deal effectively with the devastating impact of disasters. 
Disaster Risks in India
India is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a large number of natural aswell as man-made disasters. 58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone toearthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12per cent of land) is prone to floods and river erosion; of the 7,516 km longcoastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per centof the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly areas are at risk fromlandslides and avalanches.Vulnerability to disasters/ emergencies of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) origin also exists.Heightened vulnerabilities to disaster risks can be related to expandingpopulation, urbanization and industrialization, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation and climate change (Maps 1-4).
In the context of human vulnerability to disasters, the economicallyand socially weaker segments of the population are the ones that are most seriously affected. Within the vulnerable groups, elderly persons, women,children - especially women rendered destitute and children orphaned onaccount of disasters and the differently abled persons
are exposed to higherrisks.
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Paradigm shift in Disaster Management (DM)
On 23 December, 2005, the Government of India (GoI) took adefining step by enacting the Disaster Management Act, 2005, (hereinafterreferred to as the Act) which envisaged the creation of the National DisasterManagement Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, StateDisaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by the Chief Ministers,and District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by theCollector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner as the case maybe, to spearhead and adopt a holistic and integrated approach to DM. Therewill be a paradigm shift, from the erstwhile relief-centric response to aproactive prevention, mitigation and preparedness-driven approach forconserving developmental gains and also to minimise losses of life,livelihoods and property.
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