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Ch 14 Excerpt

Ch 14 Excerpt

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716
CHAPTER
14
Heat-Transfer Equipment—Design and Costs
Excerpted from Chapter 14 "Heat-Transfer Equipment - Design and Costs"
Ashell-and-tube exchanger with one shell and one tube pass is being used as a cooler. The coolingmedium is water with a
ow rate of 11 kg/s on the shell side of the exchanger. With an inside diam-eter of 0.584 m, the shell is packed with a total of 384 tubes in a staggered (triangular) array. The out-side diameter of the tubes is 0.019 m with a clearance between tubes of 0.00635 m. Segmental baf 
eswith a 25 percent baf 
e cut are used on the shell side, and the baf 
e spacing is set at 0.1524 m. Thelength of the exchanger is 3.66 m. (Assume a split backing ring,
oating heat exchanger.)The average temperature of the water is 30
C, and the average temperature of the tube walls onthe water side is 40
C. Under these conditions, estimate the heat-transfer coef 
cient for the water andthe pressure drop on the shell side, using the Kern, Bell-Delaware, and Wills and Johnston methods.
EXAMPLE 14-6
Estimation of Heat-Transfer Coefficient and Pressure Drop onthe Shell Side of a Shell-and-Tube Exchanger Using the Kern,Bell-Delaware, and Wills-Johnston Methods
 
Design of Key Heat Exchanger Types
717
s
Solution
The procedures for all three methods have been outlined brie
y in the shell-and-tube section.Appendix D provides the following data for water:
30
C35
C40
CPhysical property data
Thermal conductivity
, kJ/s
·
m
·
K0.0006160.0006230.000632Heat capacity
 p
, kJ/kg
·
K4.1794.1794.179Viscosity
µ
,Pa
·
s0.0008030.0007240.000657Density
ρ
, kg/m
3
995995995
Exchangerconfiguration
Shell internal diameter
D
s
=
0.584 mTube outside diameter
D
o
=
0.019 mTube pitch (triangular)
P
=
0.0254 mNumber of tubes
=
384Baf 
e spacing
L
 B
=
0.1524 mShell length
L
s
=
3.66 mBundle-to-shell diametral clearance
b
=
0.035 mShell-to-baf 
e diametral clearance
sb
=
0.005 mTube-to-baf 
e diametral clearance
tb
=
0.0008 mThickness of baf 
e
b
=
0.005 mSealing strips per cross-
ow row
 N 
ss
/
 N 
c
=
0
.
2
Items consistent with recommendations by J. Taborek, in
 Heat Exchanger Design Handbook,
HemispherePublishing, Washington, 1983, Sec. 3.3.5.
Kern Method
Determine the
ow area at the shell centerline. The gap between tubes
P
 D
is given as 0.00635 m. Thecross-
ow area along the centerline of 
ow in the shell is given by Eq. (14-32).
S
s
=
 D
s
P
 D
 L
 B
P
=
0
.
584
(
0
.
00635
)(
0
.
1524
)
0
.
0254
=
0
.
02225m
2
Determine
 D
e
from Eq. (14-33).
 D
e
=
4
P
2
π
 D
2
o
/
4
π
 D
o
=
4[
(
0
.
0254
)
2
(π/
4
)(
0
.
019
)
2
]
π(
0
.
019
)
=
0
.
02423mThe mass
ow rate
G
s
is
G
s
=˙
m
S
s
=
110
.
02225
=
494
.
4kg/m
2
·
sTo obtain the heat-transfer coef 
cient at an average water-
lm temperature requires evaluation of theReynolds and Prandtl numbers.Re
=
 D
e
G
s
µ
 f 
=
0
.
02423
(
494
.
4
)
0
.
000724
=
16
,
550Pr
=
 p
µ
 f 
=
4
.
179
(
0
.
000724
)
0
.
000623
=
4
.
86
 
718
CHAPTER
14
Heat-Transfer Equipment—Design and Costs
From Eq. (14-30)
h
s
=
0
.
36
 D
e
Re
0
.
55
Pr
0
.
33
µµ
w
0
.
14
=
0
.
36
0
.
6230
.
02423
(
16
,
550
)
0
.
55
(
4
.
86
)
0
.
33
0
.
0008030
.
000657
0
.
14
=
3369W/m
2
·
KCalculate the pressure drop on the shell side, assuming no effect for any type of 
uid leakage. Thenumber of baf 
es on the shell side is obtained from Eq. (14-36).
 N 
 B
=
 L
s
 L
 B
+
b
1
=
3
.
660
.
1524
+
0
.
005
1
=
22
.
2or22For a shell-side Reynolds number of 16,550, Fig. 14-44 provides a value of 0.062 for the friction fac-tor. The pressure drop is obtained from Eq. (14-35) as
 p
s
=
4
G
2
s
D
s
(
 N 
 B
+
1
)
2
ρ
 D
e
(µ/µ
w
)
0
.
14
s
=
4
(
0
.
062
)(
494
.
4
)
2
(
0
.
584
)(
22
+
1
)
2
(
995
)(
0
.
02423
)(
0
.
000803
/
0
.
000657
)
0
.
14
=
16
,
420Pa
Bell-Delaware Method
The
rst step in this method is to calculate the ideal cross-
ow heat-transfer coef 
cient. Calculate
max
from Eq. (14-39) and obtain
S
m
from Eq. (14-40) to substitute into Eq. (14-22).
S
m
=
L
 B
 D
s
D
OTL
+
(
 D
OTL
D
o
)(
P
D
o
)
P
where
D
OTL
=
D
s
b
=
0
.
549
=
0
.
1524
0
.
035
+
(
0
.
549
0
.
019
)(
0
.
0254
0
.
019
)
0
.
0254
=
0
.
0255m
2
max
=˙
m
ρ
S
m
=
11995
(
0
.
0255
)
=
0
.
4335m/sRe
=
ρ
max
D
o
µ
=
995
(
0
.
4335
)(
0
.
019
)
0
.
000803
=
10
,
205Pr
=
 p
µ
=
4
.
179
(
0
.
000803
)
0
.
000616
=
5
.
449The ideal heat-transfer coef 
cient is given by
h
i
=
 D
o
a
Re
m
Pr
0
.
34
1
2
where constants
a
and
m
are obtained from Table 14-1 for a staggered tube array,
1
fromEq.(14-22
b
), and
2
from Table 14-2.
h
i
=
0
.
6160
.
019
(
0
.
273
)(
10
,
205
)
0
.
635
(
5
.
449
)
0
.
34
5
.
4494
.
345
0
.
26
(
0
.
99
)
=
5807W/m
2
·
K

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