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Published by: DROMEAS on Dec 14, 2008
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Section: Stretching and Flexibility********************************************************************************STRETCHING AND FLEXIBILITY:Everything you never wanted to know*********************************************by Brad AppletonVersion: 1.42, Last Modified 98/06/10Copyright (C) 1993-1998 by Bradford D. AppletonPermission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of thisdocument at no charge or at a charge that covers reproducing the cost of the copies, provided that the copyright notice and this permission noticeare preserved on all copies. This document is available in plain text, PDF, postscript, and html formatsvia the World Wide Web from the following URLs:`http://www.enteract.com/~bradapp/docs/rec/stretching/'`ftp://ftp.enteract.com/users/bradapp/rec/stretching/'(the file suffix indicates the file format)DISCLAIMER The techniques, ideas, and suggestions in this document are not intended asa substitute for proper medical advice! Consult your physician or healthcare professional before performing any new exercise or exercise technique,particularly if you are pregnant or nursing, or if you are elderly, or if you have any chronic or recurring conditions. Any application of thetechniques, ideas, and suggestions in this document is at the reader's solediscretion and risk. The author and publisher of this document and their employers make nowarranty of any kind in regard to the content of this document, including,but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, or fitnessfor any particular purpose. The author and publisher of this document andtheir employers are not liable or responsible to any person or entity forany errors contained in this document, or for any special, incidental, orconsequential damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectlyby the information contained in this document.Section: Table of Contents**************************All section titles in this document begin with the prefix "Section: ". If you wish, you may scan ahead to a particular section by searching for theregular expression /^Section: SECTION-NAME/. For example, to go to theunnumbered section named "Introduction", you could scan for/^Section: Intro/; to go to section 1.1, you could scan for/^Section: 1\.1/; and to go to appendix A, you could scan for
/^Section: Appendix A/. This document is organized into the following sections:IntroductionDisclaimerAcknowledgementsAbout the Author1 Physiology of Stretching1.1 The Musculoskeletal System1.2 Muscle Composition1.2.1 How Muscles Contract1.2.2 Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers1.3 Connective Tissue1.4 Cooperating Muscle Groups1.5 Types of Muscle Contractions1.6 What Happens When You Stretch1.6.1 Proprioceptors1.6.2 The Stretch Reflex1.6.2.1 Components of the Stretch Reflex1.6.3 The Lengthening Reaction1.6.4 Reciprocal Inhibition2 Flexibility2.1 Types of Flexibility2.2 Factors Limiting Flexibility2.2.1 How Connective Tissue Affects Flexibility2.2.2 How Aging Affects Flexibility2.3 Strength and Flexibility2.3.1 Why Bodybuilders Should Stretch2.3.2 Why Contortionists Should Strengthen2.4 Overflexibility3 Types of Stretching3.1 Ballistic Stretching3.2 Dynamic Stretching3.3 Active Stretching3.4 Passive Stretching3.5 Static Stretching3.6 Isometric Stretching3.6.1 How Isometric Stretching Works3.7 PNF Stretching3.7.1 How PNF Stretching Works4 How to Stretch4.1 Warming Up4.1.1 General Warm-Up4.1.1.1 Joint Rotations4.1.1.2 Aerobic Activity4.1.2 Warm-Up Stretching4.1.2.1 Static Warm-Up Stretching4.1.2.2 Dynamic Warm-Up Stretching4.1.3 Sport-Specific Activity4.2 Cooling Down4.3 Massage4.4 Elements of a Good Stretch4.4.1 Isolation4.4.2 Leverage
4.4.3 Risk4.5 Some Risky Stretches4.6 Duration, Counting, and Repetition4.7 Breathing During Stretching4.8 Exercise Order4.9 When to Stretch4.9.1 Early-Morning Stretching4.10 Stretching With a Partner4.11 Stretching to Increase Flexibility4.12 Pain and Discomfort4.12.1 Common Causes of Muscular Soreness4.12.2 Stretching with Pain4.12.3 Overstretching4.13 Performing Splits4.13.1 Common Problems When Performing Splits4.13.2 The Front Split4.13.3 The Side Split4.13.4 Split-Stretching MachinesAppendix A References on StretchingA.1 RecommendationsA.2 Additional CommentsAppendix B Working Toward the SplitsB.1 lower back stretchesB.2 lying buttock stretchB.3 groin and inner-thigh stretchB.4 seated leg stretchesB.4.1 seated calf stretchB.4.2 seated hamstring stretchB.4.3 seated inner-thigh stretchB.5 psoas stretchB.6 quadricep stretchB.7 lying `V' stretchAppendix C Normal Ranges of Joint MotionC.1 NeckC.2 Lumbar SpineC.3 ShoulderC.4 ElbowC.5 WristC.6 HipC.7 KneeC.8 AnkleIndexSection: Introduction********************* This document is a modest attempt to compile a wealth of information inorder to answer some frequently asked questions about stretching andflexibility. It is organized into chapters covering the following topics:1. Physiology of Stretching2. Flexibility3. Types of Stretching

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