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Les capacités stratégiques conventionnelles des Etats-Unis

Les capacités stratégiques conventionnelles des Etats-Unis

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Bruno Gruselle, Note n°10/2011, Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, 2011
Bruno Gruselle, Note n°10/2011, Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, 2011

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10/05/2013

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Cls oimvisgktls stzgtîbnw|lsoikqlktnikklccls gmîznognkls 0 |klîqic|tnik lkbgbîl dlv|ns :667 w|ns„gaanzml dgks cg ki|qlccl dîolkknl
Lk v|jcngkt cg
 K|oclgz Vist|zl Zlqnlr
dl :667(KVZ :667.# c„gdmnknstzgtnik J|sh si|hgntgntzîaizmlz vziaikdîmlkt c„gvvziohl gmîznognkldl sg sîo|zntî bcijgcl
7
+ Nc s„gbnssgnt gcizs ‟ ol w|ng îtî oikanzmî dgks cls zlq|ls s|nqgktls ‟ dlzloikkgëtzl lxvcnontlmlkt w|l cls gzmls k|ocîgn-zls k„ioo|vlkt vc|s cg màml vcgol dgks |kl stzg-tîbnl dl dîalksl lt dl sîo|zntî+ Cls Ltgts-\knsdlqgnlkt lk laalt agnzl agol æ |k lkqnzikklmlktvc|s oimvclxl# ogzgotîznsî vgz dls gdqlzsgnzlsdnqlzs dgks cl|z kgt|zl (dls izbgknsgtniks kikîtgtnw|ls oimml dls Ltgts. lt dgks cl|z mi~lkd„gotnik
:
# dgks clw|lc cg mlkgol dl c„gzml k|-ocîgnzl s„gqîzgnt nks|aansgktl vi|z bgzgktnz cg cn- jlztî d„gotnik lt cg vzitlotnik d| vg~s+Cg KVZ :667 îtgjcnssgnt lk oiksîw|lkol |kltzngdl dl s~stèmls iaalksnas lt dîalksnas# oikqlk-tnikklcs oimml k|ocîgnzls# gank d„iaaznz g| vzîsn-dlkt |kl vgkivcnl îtlkd|l dl mi~lks oimvcî-mlktgnzls vlzmlttgkt dl zîgbnz æ |k oikacnt i||kl oznsl nmvcnw|gkt ols ki|qlg|x gotl|zs i| olski|qlg|x mi~lks+ Oimml cls lxtzgnts dnsvikn- jcls cl miktzlkt# cg ki|qlccl tzngdl dlqgnt æ cgains zîd|nzl cl zôcl dls mi~lks iaalksnas mgnsîbgclmlkt vlzmlttzl dl oikd|nzl dls gotniksstzgtîbnw|ls sgks zloi|znz æ c„gzml k|ocîgnzl+Lccl oiksgozgnt gnksn cl zôcl stzgtîbnw|l dl olz-tgnks gzmlmlkts oikqlktnikklcs dgks |kl qnsnikzlki|qlcîl dls mi~lks mncntgnzls ogvgjcls dl¥
midnanlz zlcgtnqlmlkt zgvndlmlkt lt dl agâiks|jstgktnlccl cl midl d„gotnik d„|k gdqlzsgn-zl
µ
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+ Olttl qnsnik s„gztno|cgnt g|ti|z dl w|gtzlgxls oikolvt|lcs 0
kitl k¶76)77
Jz|ki Bz|slccl
Mgëtzl dl zlohlzohl æ cg Aikdgtnik vi|zcg Zlohlzohl _tzgtîbnw|l
Cls ogvgontîs stzgtîbnw|lsoikqlktnikklccls dls Ltgts-\kns
 
:
Lmvàohlz c„|tncnsgtnik d„gzmls kikoikqlktnikklccls oiktzl cls nktîzàts dlsÎtgts-\kns# s|z cl tlzzntinzl gmîznognk oim-ml æ c„lxtîznl|z# lk îclqgkt cl oiõt vitlktnlcd„|k lmvcin vi|z c„|tncnsgtl|z+
 G vznizn 
#ki|s ki|s tzi|qiks dgks |kl cibnw|l d„lx-tlksnik dl cg kitnik dl dnss|gsnik oikqlk-tnikklccl vzgtnw|îl vgz cls zlsviksgjclsgmîznognks (
dltlzzlkol
.+ Nc s„gbnt îbgcl-mlkt# dgks |kl olztgnkl mls|zl# dl vi|- qinz mlkgolz cls mi~lks d„gktn-gooèsw|„|k gdqlzsgnzl vl|t gbntlz vi|z azlnklzi| lmvàohlz |kl nktlzqlktnik gmîznognkl+
Cnmntlz c„laalt d„|k lmvcin oiktzl cls nktîzàtsgmîznognks ‟ dnzlotlmlkt# vgz lxlmvcl#oiktzl sls viv|cgtniks# i| nkdnzlotlmlktoiktzl sls vznkonvg|x gccnîs ‟ bzêol æ dlsmi~lks dl vzitlotnik lt dl dîalksl+
Zîd|nzl c„nktîzàt vi|z |k gdqlzsgnzl dls„lkbgblz dgks cl dîqlcivvlmlkt# cg vzi-d|otnik i| cl dîvcinlmlkt d„gzmls kikoikqlktnikklccls# ~ oimvzns lk vlzmlttgktcg kl|tzgcnsgtnik vgz cg aizol dl sls ogvgon-tîs tlohknw|ls nkd|stznlccls+
Nkacnblz dls dîbêts nmviztgkts qinzl kl|-tzgcnslz dls onjcls dl hg|tl qgcl|z# a|bgolsi| vzitîbîls# d|zonls lt ogmi|acîls sgkszloi|znz æ dls azgvvls k|ocîgnzls+Màml sn c„gdmnknstzgtnik Ijgmg k„g vgs zlvznscl qiogj|cgnzl d| vzîoîdlkt bi|qlzklmlkt (
lt gmàml zl`ltî lxvcnontlmlkt cg ki|qlccl tzngdl.
# cgKVZ dl :676 g oikaiztî c„îqic|tnik oikolvt|lccllkbgbîl lk :667+ Gnksn# cl dio|mlkt si|cnbklw|l –
Rnth thl gdqlkt ia \+_+ oikqlktnikgc mncn-tgz~ vzllmnklkol gkd oiktnk|ld nmvziqlmlktsnk \+_+ mnssncl dlalksls gkd ogvgjncntnls tioi|ktlz gkd mntnbgtl thl laalots ia OJR# thlzicl ia \+_+ k|oclgz rlgviks nk dltlzznkb kik-k|oclgz gttgoes ‟ oikqlktnikgc# jnicibnogc# izohlmnogc ‟ hgs dlocnkld snbknanogktc~
”+ _n cg dl-alksl gktnmnssncls gvvgzgët oimml c„|k dlsvncnlzs lsslktnlc dl cg vicntnw|l dl zîd|otnik d|zôcl dls gzmls k|ocîgnzls# cg zîaîzlkol g|x og-vgontîs oikqlktnikklccls zgvvlccl w|l olztgnklsmnssniks ‟ kitgmmlkt dl oiktzl-vzicnaîzgtniki| dl oiktzl-tlzziznsml ‟ aikt gvvlc æ dls mi- ~lks dl azgvvls stzgtîbnw|ls i| d„gotniks dgks cgvziaikdl|z+Dls dnqlzs îcîmlkts w|n qnlkklkt zlkaizolz ltoimvcîtlz cg dnss|gsnik gmîznognkl ‟ olccl-onk„îtgkt d„gnccl|zs hnstiznw|lmlkt vgs sl|clmlktk|ocîgnzl ‟ dl|x mîzntlkt vc|s d„gttlktnik d|agnt sint dl cl|z zôcl stz|ot|zgkt dgks c„îqic|tnikdls gccngkols dls Ltgts-\kns# ogs dl cg dîalkslgktnmnssncls# sint vgzol w|„lccls si|cèqlkt dlsw|lstniks oikolvt|lccls lt vicntnw|ls dnaanoncls#ogs dls azgvvls stzgtîbnw|ls oikqlktnikklcclszgvndls (
oikqlktnikgc vzimvt bcijgc stznel
)OVB_.+
Cg dîalksl gktnmnssncls lst dlqlk|lc„|kl dls vnèols mgëtzlssls dls gc-cngkols gmîznognkls
Cg zlq|l stzgtîbnw|l lk mgtnèzl dl dîalksl gktn-mnssncls# v|jcnîl lk `gkqnlz :676# visl ocgnzl-mlkt cl zôcl w|l dinqlkt ioo|vlz cls s~stèmlsgmîznognks g| knqlg| nktlzkgtnikgc 0 ¥ (++.
mnssncldlalksls stzlkbthlk \+_+ bigcs ia dltlzzlkol#lxtlkdld dltlzzlkol# gkd gss|zgkol
µ
4
+Olttl vist|zl oikanzml cgzblmlkt cls ohinx laalo-t|îs lk mgtnèzl dl dîalksl gktnmnssncls vgz c„gd-mnknstzgtnik vzîoîdlktl# lk vgztno|cnlz 0
Cg dîankntnik d„|kl oiktnk|ntî oikolvt|lccllt ivîzgtnikklccl lktzl cg dîalksl d| tlzzn-tinzl# olccls dls aizols dîvci~îls i| stg-tnikkîls æ c„lxtîznl|z lt olccls dls vgztlkgn-zls lt gccnîs+ Dgks cls agnts# olttl oiktnk|ntî
Anb|zl 7 0 Lxtzgnt dl cg KVZ :667 (_i|zol 0 Aldlzgtnik ia Gmlznogk _onlktnsts.
 
 
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s„lst tzgd|ntl kik sl|clmlkt vgz |kl bls-tnik |knanîl dls vzibzgmmls vgz cg
 Mnssncl Dlalksl Gblko~
mgns s|zti|t vgz cl dîql-civvlmlkt lt cl dîvcinlmlkt d„|k s~stèml|knw|l dl oimmgkdlmlkt lt dl oiktzôclvcgâgkt _TZGTOIM g| olktzl d| vziols-s|s dl vcgknanogtnik lt dl vzîvgzgtnik mgnscgnssgkt g|x oimmgkdlmlkts ivîzgtnik-klcs ‟ ~ oimvzns KIZTHOIM vi|z cl tlz-zntinzl gmîznognk ‟ cg zlsviksgjncntî dl cgblstnik dls lkbgblmlkts lt dls oiivîzg-tniks ivîzgtnikklccls
<
+
Cg oiizdnkgtnik ivîzgtnikklccl vzibzlssnqldls mi~lks lt dls ogvgontîs dîqlcivvîlsi| dîtlk|ls vgz cls vgztlkgnzls lt gccnîs g|slnk dl ol zîslg| dl oimmgkdlmlkt lt dloiktzôcl+ Jnlk lktlkd|# cg dîmgzohl vzlkdlk oimvtl cl agnt w|l ti|s cls gccnîs kl si|-hgntlkt vgs gttlnkdzl cl màml knqlg| d„nk-tîbzgtnik+ Olztgnks vl|qlkt goolvtlz |kltzès aiztl oiizdnkgtnik dl cl|zs mi~lksgqlo ol|x dls Ltgts-\kns sgks vi|z g|tgktgoolvtlz cg ozîgtnik d„|k oimmgkdlmlkt|knw|l (ogs `gvikgns i| nszgîcnlk. gcizs w|ld„g|tzls# o„lst cl ogs dl c„ITGK# qnslkt |kltzès aiztl oiizdnkgtnik lt |k knqlg| îclqîd„nktlzivîzgjncntî lktzl cls stz|ot|zls dloimmgkdlmlkt+Dgks cls agnts# ik kl vl|t w|l oikstgtlz w|l clslaaizts dl zlq|l dl vzibzgmmls mlkîs vgz clVlktgbikl dlv|ns :668 k„ikt vgs oikd|nt æ |kldnmnk|tnik qlztnbnkl|sl dls j|dblts oiksgozîs æcg dîalksl gktnmnssncls g|x Ltgts-\kns+ Gcizs w|lcl j|dblt titgc dl cg MDG g o|cmnkî æ >#? mnc-cngzds dl diccgzs lk :66> ‟ hnstiznw|lmlkt sikknqlg| cl vc|s îclqî dlv|ns cl dîj|t dls gkkîls7>>6 ‟ nc sl stgjncnsl g|`i|zd„h|n g|x lkqnziks dl8 mnccngzds dl diccgzs
1
+ Olttl dnmnk|tnik s„lxvcn-w|l kitgmmlkt vgz cl vgssgbl dl vc|snl|zs vzi- `lts dl cg vhgsl dl dîqlcivvlmlkt æ olccl d„go-w|nsntnik lt diko cl tzgksalzt dls ankgkolmlktsdl cg MDG qlzs cls aizols gzmîls zlsviksgjcls
2
+Cg oiktnk|ntî d| ankgkolmlkt g îtî c„|k dls ago-tl|zs oclas d| dîqlcivvlmlkt dl cg vicntnw|lgmîznognkl lk vlzmlttgkt ‟ dgks cl ogdzl dl cgdîmgzohl lk svnzgcl ohèzl æ D+ Z|msalcd ‟ dldîvci~lz dls mi~lks lk oi|zs dl dîqlcivvlmlktg| slnk dls aizols lt s|z cls thîêtzls lxtîznl|zs ltgnksn dl vzivislz g|x gccnîs dls sic|tniks tlohki-cibnw|ls vi|z zîvikdzl g|x jlsinks lxvznmîs lkmgtnèzl dl vzitlotnik jgcnstnw|l+ Cls Ltgts-\knsvl|qlkt gnksn g|`i|zd„h|n dîmiktzlz w|l cgDGMJ k„lst vgs sl|clmlkt |k gztnanol zhîtizn-w|l# mgns |kl gzohntlot|zl w|n s„gvv|nl s|z dlss~stèmls d„gzmls lt dls ogvgontîs laalotnqlmlktdîvci~îs+Ik bgzdlzg æ c„lsvznt w|l cls aizols gmîznognklsvissèdlkt dî`æ 0
2 jgtgncciks îw|nvîs dl VGO-?
# dikt|kl vgztnl lst dîvci~îl æ c„lxtîznl|z (lkOizîl d| _|d kitgmmlkt. 5
:8 kgqnzls dl s|zagol îw|nvîs d| s~s-tèml dl oimjgt GLBN_
lt ogvgjclsd„lmviztlz lt dl cgkolz dls nktlzolvtl|zs_M-? jcioe-NG+ Cg 2
èml
acittl dîvci~îl lk Gsnl dnsvisl kitgmmlkt dl 1 jêtnmlkts GLBN_ (: dlstzi~lzs dl ocgssl Tnoikdlzibglt 4 ozinsl|zs dl ocgssl Gzclnbh J|zel.+C„\__ Miktlzl~ g zîolmmlkt îtî dîvci~îlk L|zivl dgks cl ogdzl dl c„
 L|zivlgk Vhgsld Gdgvtgtnql Gvvzigoh
(LVGG. 5
?6 nktlzolvtl|zs dl t~vl BJN
lk Gcgs-eg lt lk Ogcnaizknl vi|z cg vzitlotnik d|tlzzntinzl gmîznognk
8
5
\k zîslg| d„gclztl lt dl s|zqlnccgkol
oim-vzlkgkt w|gtzl zgdgzs
 Jgccnstno Mnssncl Lgzc~Rgzknkb _~stlm
(JMLR_.# dikt dl|x sikt dî-vci~îs lk L|zivl (A~cnkbdgcls Z+-\+ lt Th|cî ‟Bzilkcgkd.+ \kl oikstlccgtnik dl sgtlccntls bîi-stgtnikkgnzls dl t~vl Dlalksl _|vvizt Vzibzgm(D_V.# w|n slzikt vzibzlssnqlmlkt zlmvcgoîsvgz dls _JNZ_-BLI
>
# gss|zl cg dîtlotnik dl tnzvlzmgklktl+ Lk oimvcîmlkt# cls Ltgts-\kns dns-vislkt îbgclmlkt dl dl|x sgtlccntls lxvîznmlk-tg|x dl tzg`lotibzgvhnl (_vgol Tzgoenkb gkd _|z- qlnccgkol _~stlm. gnksn w|l dl vc|snl|zs zgdgzsdl s|zqlnccgkol mijncls dikt cl
 _lg Jgsld X-jgkd Zgdgz
(_JX.
76
+Ols zîgcnsgtniks tlohknw|ls ikt vlzmns g|x Ltgts-\kns d„lkbgblz# gqlo cl|zs vznkonvg|x gccnîs# dlsdîmgzohls qnsgkt æ ozîlz |k zîslg| mikdngc nk-tîbzgkt dnqlzs mi~lks dl dîalksl zîbnikg|x+ Ikontlzg c„lxlmvcl d| @gvik# w|n g dîqlcivvî ltdîvci~î dlv|ns :664 dls ogvgontîs kgqgcls lttlzzlstzls dlstnkîls æ dîalkdzl cl tlzzntinzl `gvi-kgns dikt cl aikotnikklmlkt lst oiizdikkî gqloolc|n dls s~stèmls gmîznognks dl cg 2
èml
acittl+Olztgnks Ltgts d| Oikslnc dl Oiivîzgtnik d|Bical dlqzgnlkt îbgclmlkt oimvcîtlz cl|zs ogvg-ontîs gktnmnssncls lt dgqgktgbl s„nktîbzlz dgks cls~stèml gmîznognk# kitgmmlkt vgz c„gohgt dls~stèmls iaazgkt |kl oi|qlzt|zl zîbnikgcl(Tlzmnkgc Hnbh Gctnt|dl Gzlg Dlalksl vi|z clsLG\
77
# GLBN_ vi|z c„Gzgjnl sgi|dntl.
7:
+Lk L|zivl# cg dîonsnik vznsl g| simmlt dlc„ITGK æ Cnsjikkl lk kiqlmjzl :676 d„g`i|tlzcg dîalksl d| tlzzntinzl lt dls viv|cgtniks g|kimjzl dls mnssniks dl c„Gccngkol i|qzl cg qinlg| dîqlcivvlmlkt dl c„gvvziohl gmîznognkl vzi-visîl vgz c„gdmnknstzgtnik Ijgmg (LVGG. 0 |kdîvcinlmlkt vzibzlssna dl ogvgontîs îtgcî s|z 4vîznidls lt w|n g dî`æ oimmlkoî vgz cl visntnik-klmlkt d„|k ozinsl|z GLBN_ g| slnk dl cg 1
èml
 acittl lt dint gji|tnz g| dîvcinlmlkt dl s~stèmls

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