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Alok Kumar Water Jet Term Paper

Alok Kumar Water Jet Term Paper

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Published by: Alok Kumar on Apr 15, 2012
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12/01/2012

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The demand for glass devices has recently increased in the material development, the medicaldiagnosis and the environ-mental analysis. The glass devices are usually manufactured usingetching with photolithography. In wet etching of glass, hydro-fluoric acid is used for chemicalreaction. For the sake of safety in the operation and control of the machining rate, thechemical liquid is diluted and the manufacturing rate is low. An additional cost for the wastedisposal has to be considered for the environmental impact. Dry etching with plasma is alsoapplied to micro fabrication on the glass surfaces. Although the machining size in the dryetching is much smaller than that of other processes,the process is performed for a long timeon expensive facilities. Although the machining size in the dry etching is much smaller thanthat of other processes,the process is performed for a long time on expensivefacilities.Therefore, alternative processes have been required to improve themanufacturingcost and environment.An additional cost for the waste disposal has to be considered for theenvironmental impact. Dry etching with plasma is also applied to micro fabrication on theglass surfaces. Although the machining size in the dry etching is much smaller than that of other processes,the process is performed for a long time on expensive facilities.Therefore,alternative processes have been required to improve the manufacturing cost andenvironment.This study applies abrasive water jet to machining and polishing of glass. Theabrasive water jet processes are originally performed to cut materials with water containingabrasive grains at a high pressure. The abrasive water jets have also been applied to milling,drilling, and polishing. Many studies have discussed the removal process and the surfacefinish.The abrasive flow process was associated with erosion and the analytical models proposed for controlling the process.In manufacturing of the glass devices, crack-free surfacesshould be finished without brittle fracture. Erosion of glasses by solid particles has also beendiscussed. Because brittle fracture largely depends on the impingement angles of particles, the particle collision should be controlled at a shallow impingement angle.
 
Abrasive water jet machiningMachining operation
Machining of micro grooves 20–100mm wide 1–10mm deep is discussed for human celloperations on the glass chips in thischapter.Fig. 1shows the abrasive water jet machining of the micro grooves. The diameter of the nozzle is 0.25 mm. CeO
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slurry issupplied with water  by a low-pressure pump. The specifications ofthe operation are shown in Table 1. Themachining area iscontrolled by the V-shaped masks to supply the slurry sufficiently at a pressure enough to machine.
 
Stagnation effect
The process is associated with erosion, in which the surface profiles changes withdeformation, fracture and material removal at collision of the particles. Erosion can becontrolled by the sizes,the velocities, and the impingement angles of the solid particles.Theimpingement angle is defined as the angle shown inFig. 2.When the impingement angle islarge, erosion of brittle materials normally is accompanied by brittle fracture. Meanwhile,when small particles collide onto a surface at small impingement angles, the surface profilechangeswithout fracture as erosion of ductile materials. In order to finish a crack-freesurface, the particles should be controlled to collide onto a surface at shallow angles andmove horizontally at high velocities to keep high removal rates with kinetic energies.Fig. 3 shows CFD analysis of fluid flow around the machining area between the maskstapered at 45 degrees, where the taper angle is defined as the slope of the sidewall, as showninFig. 1.

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