Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The 'Patriotic Guards' and the 'Popular War Doctrine'. On the Ideological Scaffolding of Socialist Romania's Security Policy

The 'Patriotic Guards' and the 'Popular War Doctrine'. On the Ideological Scaffolding of Socialist Romania's Security Policy

Ratings: (0)|Views: 60 |Likes:
Published by Emanuel Copilaș

More info:

Published by: Emanuel Copilaș on Apr 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/15/2012

pdf

text

original

 
ORIGINALPAPEREmanuel
COPILA~
The'patrioticguards'andthe'popularwardoctrine'.OntheideologicalscaffoldingofSocialistRomania'ssecuritypolicy
Emanuel
COPILA~J
WestUniversity
ofT'imisoara,
Faculty
of
PoliticalSciences,PhilosophyandCommunicationSciencesDepartmentofPoliticalSciences
E-mail:
Abstract:
"Praguespring':or,inotherwords,Moscow'sintoleranceforpoliticalandeconomicalreformschallengingthecommunistmonopolyinthe"brotherlycountries':posedaconsiderableinfluenceonthesecuritypolicyofsocialistRomania.
It
evenledtomajorreinterpretationsandreorganizationsoftheexistentstrategicconceptions.Accordingly,the"popularguards"wereonceagainputinplace,andthedoctrineof"popularwar"cametolight.Theconstitutiveextentinwhichtheseconceptswerepenetratedbytheromantic-Leninistideologyconstitutestheobjectofthepresentpaper.
Keywords:
romantic-Leninism,strategicthinking,"patrioticguards':"war':WarsawTreaty.
7
~S\E.RED
V~
~0~
g;;~
§
REGISTERED
%
VERSION
 
RevistadeStiintePolitice.RevuedesSciencesPolitiquesNo.322011
OutliningromanticLeninismIhavechosentoconceptualizetheideologicalstructureofRomaniancommunismduringthe'Ceausescuera'underthenameofromanticLeninism.Anunusualmelangebetweendifferentideologicalextremes,romanticLeninismentersthestageonceGheorgheGheorghiuDei'syoungsuccessor,NicolaeCeausescu,achievesandconsolidatespower.ButromanticLeninismismuchmorethanCeausescu'sthinking,despisethefactthelatterrepresentedtheprimarysourcewhichfueledit-reflectingamultitudeofsocialtendencies,mentalities,bureaucraticinertiasandideologicalfidelities.TheLeninistcomponentofromanticLeninismischaracterizedbyitspermanentprojectiveorientationinthesenseofovercomingthe'bourgeois'worldtroughmassiveindustrialization,consideredtobevalidatedbyhistoriclawsand,ingeneral,troughintransigentattitude,'revolutionaryvigilance',orientedagainstanypoliticalorideologicalshortcomingsor'deviations'.Theromanticcomponent,ontheotherhand,includesthecultofheroism,exacerbatednationalistflaresagainstallinsideminorities,respectivelyforinternationalaffirmation,externally,thehypertrophyationofthepartyinrelationtoitsleader,thegeneralsecretaryoftheCentralCommittee,afascisticevolution,becauseonlyinfascistregimesthemostimportantdepositoryoflegitimacyistheleader,nottheparty-and,ingeneral,theimportanceaccordedtothenation,aconceptwhichtheRomaniancommuniststriedtoideologicallyaseptizetrough,amongothers,asubstantialcontributiontothecreationofa'newinternationalorder'.Leninism,romanticism,nationalismandfascism,paradoxically,butfunctionally,coexistinsidethisspeciesofLeninismandconferitanuniqueidentity,formedbothbypositivistelements,withanexacerbatedmodernity(Leninism),andformpremodernelements(romanticismandnationalism).Onshort,aparamodernidentity,whichtheregimetriedtoimposethesocietyuntilitsverylastsecondofexistence,hopingandactingtroughanymeanspossibletoideologicallyenrollanessentiallyhostilepopulationandtherefore'counter-revolutionary'.
1
Theconsequencesofthe'Praguespring'inRomania.Ideologicalandsecurityaspects'Wehavedecidedthat,startingtoday,tobegintheformationofarmedpatrioticguards,madeofworkers,peasantsandintellectuals,defendersoftheindependenceofoursocialisthomeland'-Ceausescurantedinfrontofgatheredin21AugusttolistenaboutthepositionoftheregardingtheeventsinCzechoslovakia.'Wewantourarmedunitstoprotectitsrevolutionaryconquests,totheindependenceandsecurityofthesocialistdays,onamilitaryparade,the'patrioticguards'oftheSoviet
embassy.s
520000soldiers,'000membersofthepatrioticguards'couldhave1968bytheRomanianCommunistParty(RCP).4aclearsignaltoMoscow,namelythathewillpositionasasupporterofCzechoslovakref
8
 
RevistadeStiintePolitice.RevuedesSciencesPolitiquesNo.322011
WarsawTreatyOrganization's(WTO)militaryinterventioninthat'brotherlycountry',undertheSovietaegis;RomanianSocialistRepublic's(RSR)defiantattitudewillcometoanendseveraldayslater,when,asweareabouttosee,theSovietambassadorinBucharestwilldeliveraclearmessagetotheimpetuousRomanianleaderfromthePoliticalBureauoftheCommunistPartyoftheSovietUnion(CPSU).The'patrioticguards',however,werenotfoundedin1968duringthoseturbulentcircumstances-whenRomaniawasnotasendangeredbyapotentialWarsawTreatyinterventionasitisusuallyconsidered;theyhadamuchlongerhistory.Evenbefore23August1933theseguardswereconstitutedas'shockbrigades'troughwhichthecommunistshadpresumablypreparedthe'armedinsurrection'againsttheAntonescugovernment.Inreality,the'patrioticguards'wereparamilitaryformationsthatterrorizedthepopulationandthestateinstitutionstocreateconfusionanddiscouragement,vitalingredientsforthecommunisttakeover.Composed'inalargeextentbythemostadvancedanddeterminedworkersinthefightagainstfascism,communist,communistyouthandparty-lessworkers',the'guards',commandedinthosedaysbyEmil
Bodnaras,
weresecondatedby'groupsofpatriotswithlocalmissions,whichtroughsabotagesandagitationhadtoageneralconfusioninthefasciststateapparatus'<Theshockgroupsplayed,apparently,aconsiderableroleinbringingundercontrolthepublicinstitutionsandthepopulationingeneral.Togetherwiththearmy,'whichturneditsweaponsagainsttheHitleriteoccupants'andthe'massesofworkersandpeasants',theguards'createdthatrevolutionaryforcewhichgavealargepopularcharacterthearmedinsurrectionandensuredtheconditionstoreachvictory'.«The23august'victory',tobeprecise;howevertheguardsalsohadanotablecontributiontotheinstallmentoftheregime,bybeingmaintained'incitiesandeveninsomevillages'asformsof'citizencontrolagainstspeculators,thievesandotherdelinquents'."Beingestablishedandabolishedaftertheregime'sliking,theguardgraduallyloosedtheirgeneralutilityaspost-revolutionary
Leninisms
replacedsuccessfullythe'bourgeois'organizationoftheRomaniansociety.Theywerereactivatedin1956,oncetheHungarianrevolutionbrokeup,buttheygraduallyslippedintoobscurityaftertheretreatoftheSovietarmy,twoyearslater,andfinallyceasedtheiractivityin1962.DuringGheorgheGheorghiuDej'sleadership,thesegroupswereofficiallynamed'fightingformationsofthepeople'.Onlyin1968,when,duetoCeausescu'sinsecurity,permanentlyreinstalled,theybecame'patrioticguards'?Thereflectsthenationalistsurplusofthenewleadership.permanentizationofthosespecificguardswecanpintegrativetendenciesofromanticLeninisminmorepronouncedthanthatofautonomous(RomaniancommunistideologyduringtheGheorThereconstitutionofthesefo
'"U''''''-'"'''
Ceausescu'sspeechinthepalacemarket.
VCl1c;m
popularadherence,theguardsreachedcounty(theterritorial-administrativereo
5'Ull'>1o;,t,;
9

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->