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Mcc 2 Www.otomasyonegitimi.com

Mcc 2 Www.otomasyonegitimi.com

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13
Design Standards
Although several organizations are involved in establishingstandards for the design, construction, and application ofmotor control centers, the primary standards are establishedby UL, NEMA, and the National Electrical Code® (NEC®). Thefollowing organizations have established standards which maybe applied to motor control centers. It is beyond the scope ofthis course to cover every standard; however, reference will bemade throughout the course to many important standards withwhich Siemens motor control centers comply.
UL
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is a private company that isnationally recognized as an independent testing laboratory. ULtests products for safety and products that pass UL tests cancarry a UL mark. Siemens motor control centers are designedto UL 845 standards.
NEMA
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is anorganization that, among other things, develops standards forelectrical equipment.
NEC
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a nonprofitorganization which publishes the
National Electrical Code 
®(
NEC 
®). The intent of the
NEC 
® is to describe safe electricalpractices.
ANSI
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is anongovernmental organization that facilitates the developmentof standards by establishing a consensus among qualifiedgroups.
IEEE
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) isan organization open to individual membership and provides avariety of services for its members. It also develops numerousstandards for electrical and electronic equipment and practices.
IEC
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is anorganization based in Geneva, Switzerland, with over 50member nations. IEC writes standards for electrical andelectronic equipment practices.
NEC 
® and
National Electrical Code 
® are registered trademarks of theNational Fire Protection Association.
 
14
Need for Circuit Protection
Current and Temperature
Current flow in a conductor always generates heat. The greaterthe current flow in any one size conductor, the hotter theconductor. Excess heat is damaging to electrical componentsand conductor insulation. For that reason conductors havea rated, continuous current-carrying capacity or ampacity.Overcurrent protection devices, such as fuses, are used toprotect conductors from excessive current flow.Excessive current is referred to as overcurrent. The
National Electrical Code 
® defines overcurrent as
any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor 
.
It may result from overload, short circuit, or ground fault 
(Article100-definitions).
NEC 
® and
National Electrical Code 
® are registered trademarks of theNational Fire Protection Association. Reprinted with permission from NFPA70-2002, the
National Electrical Code 
®, Copyright© 2001, National FireProtection Association, Quincy, MA 02269.
 
15
Overloads
An overload occurs when too many devices are operated on asingle circuit, or a piece of electrical equipment is made to workharder than it is rated design. For example, a motor rated for10 amperes may draw 20, 30, or more amperes in an overloadcondition. In the following illustration, a package has becomejammed on a conveyor, causing the motor to work harder anddraw more current. Because the motor is drawing more current,it heats up. Damage will occur to the motor in a short time ifthe problem is not corrected or if the circuit not is shut down bythe overcurrent protector.
Conductor Insulation
Motors, of course, are not the only devices that require circuitprotection for an overload condition. Every circuit requires someform of protection against overcurrent. Heat is one of the majorcauses of insulation failure of any electrical component. Highlevels of heat to insulated wire can cause the insulation tobreakdown, melt, or flake off, exposing conductors.

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