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STUDIE~1

STUDIE~1

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TheProjectGutenbergeBook,StudiesinLiteratureandHistory,bySirAlfredComynLyallThiseBookisfortheuseofanyoneanywhereatnocostandwithalmostnorestrictionswhatsoever.Youmaycopyit,giveitawayorre-useitunderthetermsoftheProjectGutenbergLicenseincludedwiththiseBookoronlineatwww.gutenberg.orgTitle:StudiesinLiteratureandHistoryAuthor:SirAlfredComynLyallReleaseDate:June30,2008[eBook#25937]Language:English***STARTOFTHEPROJECTGUTENBERGEBOOKSTUDIESINLITERATUREANDHISTORY***E-textpreparedbyStacyBrown,ThierryAlberto,andtheProjectGutenbergOnlineDistributedProofreadingTeam(http://www.pgdp.net)STUDIESINLITERATUREANDHISTORYbytheLateSIRALFREDC.LYALLP.C.,G.C.I.E.,K.C.B.,D.C.L.,LL.D.LondonJohnMurray,AlbemarleStreet,W.1915PREFACEIntheSecondSeriesofhis_AsiaticStudies_thelateSirAlfredLyallrepublishedanumberofarticlesthathehadcontributedto
 
variousReviewsuptotheyear1894.Afterthatdatehewrotefrequently,especiallyforthe_EdinburghReview_,andheleftamongsthispapersanotenaminganumberofarticlesfromwhichheconsideredthataselectionmightbemadeforpublication.Thepresentvolumecontains,withtwoexceptions,thearticlessomentioned,togetherwithonethatwasnotincludedbytheauthor.AlargenumberofSirAlfredLyall'scontributions[1]totheReviewsdeal,asmightbeexpected,withIndia--withitspoliticalandadministrativeproblems,orwiththecareersofitsstatesmenandsoldiers.Heappears,however,tohaveregardedsucharticlesasnotofsufficientpermanentvalueforrepublication,andhisselectionwasconfinedalmostexclusivelytowritingsonliterary,historicalorreligioussubjects.HemadeanexceptioninfavourofanessayonhisoldfriendSirHenryMaine;butasthelimitationsimposedbythepublishermadeitnecessarytosacrificeoneofthelargerarticles,thisessaywas,withsomereluctance,excluded.ItdealtchieflywithMaine'sinfluenceonIndianadministrationandlegislation;andwouldmoreappropriatelybeincludedinacollectionofhiswritingsonIndia,shouldtheseeverbepublished.WhileIndianofficialsubjectshavebeenexcluded,readersoftheearlier'Studies'willrecognisethatmanyofthewritingsinthisvolumefollowoutlinesofthoughtsuggestedintheearlierworks,orapplyinalargerspheretheresultsofobservationsmadewhentheauthorwasstudyingIndianmythsandIndianreligionsinBerar,orthe'rareandantiquestratificationofsociety'inRajputana.Thetwoaddressesonreligionplacedattheendofthevolumeformthemostobviousexample,butthereisacloseconnectionbetweenagroupoftheotherarticlesandtheviewsdevelopedin_AsiaticStudies_.Inthelasteditionofthatworkachapteron'HistoryandFable'wasinsertedbecauseofitsbearingontheauthor'sgeneralviews'regardingtheelementarycommixtureoffableandfactinagesthatmaybecalledprehistoric.'Inthischaptertheauthormadearapidsurveyofthe'kinshipbetweenhistoryandfable,'tracingitthroughthetimesofmythandromancetotheperiodofthehistoricnovel.'Attheirbirth,'hesays,'historyandfableweretwinsisters;'andagain,'Thereisalwaysacertainquantityoffableinhistory,andthereisalwaysanelementofhistoryinoneparticularsortoffable.'ThereviewsofEnglishandAnglo-Indianfiction,andof'HeroicPoetry'inthepresentwork,giveopportunitiesoffurtherillustrationsfromfictionofhisviews:whichreappearfromanotherstandpointinthe'RemarksontheReadingofHistory'--ashortaddress,whichithasbeenthoughtworthwhiletoreprint,thoughitwasnotspeciallyindicatedbytheauthorforpublication.Severaloftheotherarticlescontaincriticismofamorepurelyliterarycharacter;thearticleon'Frontiers,'whichrecountsexcitingbutlittle-knownepisodesintheRussianadvanceinAsia,hasanimportantbearingonabranchofIndianpolicyinwhichSirAlfredLyalltotheendofhiscareertookadeepinterest,andofwhichhehadaprofoundknowledge;and'L'EmpireLibéral'may,itisthought,befoundtocontainmuchthatisofspecialinterestatthepresenttime.Thesearticleshavenothadthebenefitofanygeneralrevisionbytheirauthor,butinafewcaseshehadindicatedintheprintedcopiesalterationsoradditionsthathedesiredtobemade.
 
_TheQuarterly._ _TheAnglo-Saxon._ _TheEdinburgh._ _TheFortnightly._ Exceptthatthetwoessayson'RaceandReligion'and'TheStateinitsRelationtoReligion'havebeenbroughttogetherattheendofthevolume,thechronologicalorderoforiginalpublicationhasbeenobserved.Thesourcefromwhicheacharticleisdrawnhasinallcasesbeenindicated,andthisopportunityistakenofacknowledgingthepermissiontorepublishthathascourteouslybeenaccordedbytheeditorsorproprietorsoftheReviewsconcerned.Permissionhasalsobeengiventopublishthearticleon'SirSpencerWalpole'writtenfortheBritishAcademy,andtheaddressonthe'ReadingofHistory.'JohnO.Miller _December1914._ CONTENTSPAGENOVELSOFADVENTUREANDMANNERS1ENGLISHLETTER-WRITINGINTHENINETEENTHCENTURY34THACKERAY76THEANGLO-INDIANNOVELIST121HEROICPOETRY155THEWORKSOFLORDBYRON177THEENGLISHUTILITARIANS210CHARACTERISTICSOFMR.SWINBURNE'SPOETRY263FRONTIERSANCIENTANDMODERN291L'EMPIRELIBÉRAL328SIRSPENCERWALPOLE368REMARKSONTHEREADINGOFHISTORY377RACEANDRELIGION399THESTATEINITSRELATIONTOEASTERNANDWESTERNRELIGIONS427INDEX454

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