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Dyeing of Reactives by Exhaust Method

Dyeing of Reactives by Exhaust Method

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Published by Md Golam Kibria

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Published by: Md Golam Kibria on Apr 16, 2012
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Dyeing of Reactives by Exhaust Method
Choice of Reactive class of Dyes has become indispensable for application of colours on the cellulosics to provide bright range of shades with reasonablygood fastness features. No other class of colours can boast of the versatilerange of shades with unmatched brilliance, yet economically viable and costeffective that this class of dyes can offer. Even as Reactive dyes are mostpopular for dyeing solid shades it is equally sought after for various resistand discharge printing styles, thanks to its suitability to be resisted ordischarged readily and effectivelyThe reaction mechanism is apparently simple in that on just altering the pHafter exhaustion, formation of covalent bonds between the reactive group of 
the dye and the OH of cellulose proceeds. For the same reason of readyreactivity with Cell OH groups, it reacts with Water also to get hydrolyzed inwhich state the dye behaves no better than a direct cotton dye. Themanagement of the various factors/variables that govern the transport of dyeuniformly from an aqueous bath to the cellulose substrate and its preferentialreactivity to the fibre than to water is far more complex and critical toperform to obtain a satisfactory dyeing. As the shades invariably are tertiarymatchings, the behaviour of individual dyes with different exhaustion andreactivity characteristics, all the more compounds the complexity of theproblems of differential shade build up, variations, uneven dyeings,reproducibility, fastness etc multifold.Though there are other meth
ods of dyeing „Reactives‟ like pad batch, pad – 
dry-cure or pad-dry-steam etc exhaust dyeing is practiced widely because of its flexibility to process fabrics in rope form and in the case of yarn and otherpackages, exhaust dyeing is the only alternative as on date. Tubular knit-ware, by its very physical form is more amenable to exhaust dyeing in
„rope„s form; however, advanced machineries obtainable in recent years
claim satisfactory open width dyeing by Pad Batch technique.The exhaust method of dyeing would include the following phases1. Primary exhaustion phase /Migration 2. Secondary exhaustion phase, 3.Fixation (Reaction) phase -Secondary exhaustion and Fixation can runconcurrently/over lapping. 4. Washing off phase.
Primary Exhaustion Phase
Exhaustion of dye from the dye bath to the cellulose during PrimaryExhaustion phase is governed by the following three physical processes andthe phenomenon of substantivityAdsorptionDiffusion,Absorption/ Exhaustion/Migration
 It would be relevant to briefly look at cellulose structure with respect to itsHydrogen bonding behaviour at the surface layers and in the interiors of thecellulose micro fibrils The interior layers contain both forms - 1Alpha and 1Beta of Cellulose molecular chains that are packed compactly and there areintra molecular Hydrogen bonding parallel to the 1.4 Beta Glucoside link 
(OH of #2 to #6 of the succeeding glucose unit and #3 OH with the ring Oof the preceding Glucose Unit) that stabilize the cellulose chain.The other four hydroxyl groups are fully free for Hydrogen bonding. At thesurface layers of cellulose even the O-3 (OH) and 2-6 Hydrogen bondings arereported to be absent and therefore all the six Hydroxyl groups in theCellobiose repeat units at the surface are free to attract Hydrogen bondingwith the water molecules.Adsorption in an exhaust dyeing process is fundamentally the inter-phasephenomenon of a dye (solute) in its solution in water coming in to surfacecontact with the substrate and forming a surface layer/ coating. That is thestarting phase for the rest of the diffusion and absorption phenomenon. Inthe case of Cellulose exposed to a dye solution in water at slightly acidic pHthere is no ionization of cellulose. However
, with abundance of „free‟ OH
groups available at the surface (six numbers in each of the repeat Cellobioseunit), water molecules are drawn in clusters around the cellulose molecules toform hydrogen bonds causing an overall charge separation. Resultant surfacethus carries a negative charge known as the
 zeta potential
This surface negative charge would repel the advances of the negativelycharged ionized dyestuff anions. The zeta potential is partially overcome dueto the presence of large amount of dye anions, some of which are forcedacross the electron cloud through increase in energy (raise in temperature) orthrough mechanical agitation to come within the effective distance for the
inter molecular forces like Wander Vaal‟s forces/secondary valence fo
rces tofacilitate the dye anion to get adsorbed on the surface of cellulose. Presence

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