the dye and the OH of cellulose proceeds. For the same reason of readyreactivity with Cell OH groups, it reacts with Water also to get hydrolyzed inwhich state the dye behaves no better than a direct cotton dye. Themanagement of the various factors/variables that govern the transport of dyeuniformly from an aqueous bath to the cellulose substrate and its preferentialreactivity to the fibre than to water is far more complex and critical toperform to obtain a satisfactory dyeing. As the shades invariably are tertiarymatchings, the behaviour of individual dyes with different exhaustion andreactivity characteristics, all the more compounds the complexity of theproblems of differential shade build up, variations, uneven dyeings,reproducibility, fastness etc multifold.Though there are other meth
ods of dyeing „Reactives‟ like pad batch, pad –
dry-cure or pad-dry-steam etc exhaust dyeing is practiced widely because of its flexibility to process fabrics in rope form and in the case of yarn and otherpackages, exhaust dyeing is the only alternative as on date. Tubular knit-ware, by its very physical form is more amenable to exhaust dyeing in
„rope„s form; however, advanced machineries obtainable in recent years
claim satisfactory open width dyeing by Pad Batch technique.The exhaust method of dyeing would include the following phases1. Primary exhaustion phase /Migration 2. Secondary exhaustion phase, 3.Fixation (Reaction) phase -Secondary exhaustion and Fixation can runconcurrently/over lapping. 4. Washing off phase.
Primary Exhaustion Phase
Exhaustion of dye from the dye bath to the cellulose during PrimaryExhaustion phase is governed by the following three physical processes andthe phenomenon of substantivityAdsorptionDiffusion,Absorption/ Exhaustion/Migration
It would be relevant to briefly look at cellulose structure with respect to itsHydrogen bonding behaviour at the surface layers and in the interiors of thecellulose micro fibrils The interior layers contain both forms - 1Alpha and 1Beta of Cellulose molecular chains that are packed compactly and there areintra molecular Hydrogen bonding parallel to the 1.4 Beta Glucoside link