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Tissues Unit 5

Tissues Unit 5

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Published by jpm7056

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Published by: jpm7056 on Dec 15, 2008
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Tissue is a group of cells that have similar structure and that function together as aunit. A nonliving material, called the intercellular matrix, fills the spaces between thecells. This may be abundant in some tissues and minimal in others. The intercellular matrix may contain special substances such as salts and fibers that are unique to aspecific tissue and gives that tissue distinctive characteristics. There are four maintissue types in the body: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Each is designedfor specific functions. Use the hyperlinks below to branch into a tissue type and learnmore about the topic.Epithelial tissues are widespread throughout the body. They form the covering of all body surfaces, line body cavities and hollow organs, and are the major tissue inglands. They perform a variety of functions that include protection, secretion,absorption, excretion, filtration, diffusion, and sensory reception.The cells in epithelial tissue are tightly packed together with very little intercellular matrix. Because the tissues form coverings and linings, the cells have one free surfacethat is not in contact with other cells. Opposite the free surface, the cells are attachedto underlying connective tissue by a non-cellular basement membrane. Thismembrane is a mixture of carbohydratesand proteins secreted by the epithelial andconnective tissue cells.Epithelial cells may be squamous, cuboidal, or columnar in shape and may bearranged in single or multiple layers.Simple cuboidal epithelium is found in glandular tissue and in the kidney tubules.Simple columnar epithelium lines the stomach and intestines. Pseudostratifiedcolumnar epithelium lines portions of the respiratory tract and some of the tubes of the male reproductive tract. Transitional epithelium can be distended or stretched.Glandular epithelium is specialized to produce and secrete substances.Connective tissues bind structures together, form a framework and support for organsand the body as a whole, store fat, transport substances, protect against disease, andhelp repair tissue damage. They occur throughout the body. Connective tissues arecharacterized by an abundance of intercellular matrix with relatively few cells.Connective tissue cells are able to reproduce but not as rapidly as epithelial cells.Most connective tissues have a good blood supply but some do not.
 Numerous cell types are found in connective tissue. Three of the most common arethefibroblast,macrophage,andmast cell. The types of connective tissue include loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, dense fibrous connective tissue, elasticconnective tissue, cartilage, osseous tissue (bone), and blood.Muscle tissue is composed of cells that have the special ability to shorten or contractin order to produce movement of the body parts. The tissue is highly cellular and iswell supplied with blood vessels. The cells are long and slender so they are sometimescalled muscle fibers, and these are usually arranged in bundles or layers that aresurrounded by connective tissue. Actin and myosin are contractile proteins in muscletissue.Muscle tissue can be categorized into skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue,and cardiac muscle tissue.Skeletal muscle fibers are cylindrical, multinucleated, striated, and under voluntarycontrol. Smooth muscle cells are spindle shaped, have a single, centrally locatednucleus, and lack striations. They are called involuntary muscles. Cardiac muscle has branching fibers, one nucleus per cell, striations, and intercalated disks. Its contractionis not under voluntary control. 
 Nervous tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, andnerves. It is responsible for coordinating andcontrolling many body activities. It stimulates musclecontraction, creates an awareness of the environment,and plays a major role in emotions, memory, andreasoning. To do all these things, cells in nervous tissueneed to be able to communicate with each other byway of electrical nerve impulses.The cells in nervous tissue that generate and conduct impulses are calledneuronsor nerve cells. These cells have three principal parts: thedendrites, the cell body, and oneaxon. The main part of the cell, the part that carries on the general functions, is thecell body. Dendrites are extensions, or processes, of the cytoplasm that carry impulsesto the cell body. An extension or process called an axon carries impulses away fromthe cell body. Nervous tissue also includes cells that do not transmit impulses, but instead supportthe activities of the neurons. These are the glial cells (neuroglial cells), together termed theneuroglia.Supporting, or glia, cells bind neurons together and insulate theneurons. Some are phagocytic and protect against bacterial invasion, while others provide nutrients by binding blood vessels to the neurons.
 Cells group together in the body to form tissues - a collection of similar cells thatgroup together to perform a specialized function. There are 4 primary tissue types inthe human body: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue.1.Epithelial Tissue - The cells of epithelial tissue pack tightly together and formcontinuous sheets that serve as linings in different parts of the body. Epithelialtissue serve as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body's organsseparate, in place and protected. Some examples of epithelial tissue are theouter layer of the skin, the inside of the mouth and stomach, and the tissuesurrounding the body's organs.2.Connective Tissue - There are many types of connective tissue in the body.Generally speaking, connective tissue adds support and structure to the body.Most types of connective tissue contain fibrous strands of the protein collagenthat add strength to connective tissue. Some examples of connective tissueinclude the inner layers of skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone and fattissue. In addition to these more recognizable forms of connective tissue, blood is also considered a form of connective tissue.3.Muscle Tissue - Muscle tissue is a specialized tissue that can contract. Muscletissue contains the specialized proteins actin and myosin that slide past oneanother and allow movement. Examples of muscle tissue are contained in themuscles throughout your body.4.Nerve Tissue - Nerve tissue contains two types of cells: neurons and glialcells. Nerve tissue has the ability to generate and conduct electrical signals inthe body. These electrical messages are managed by nerve tissue in the brainand transmitted down the spinal cord to the body.

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