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Table Of Contents

SUMMARY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOMENCLATURE
2.2. MEMS foreword
2.3. Sensors
2.3.1. Mechanical detection
2.3.2. Optical detection
2.3.3. Electrical detection
2.3.4. Chemical detection
2.4. MEMS cantilever chemical sensor
2.4.1. Material
2.4.2. Fabrication
2.4.3. Packaging
2.4.4. Sensing types and methods
2.4.5. Resonance frequency
2.4.6. Cantilever actuation methods
2.4.7. Cantilever I/O
2.4.8. Polymer thickness
2.4.10. Fick’s law of diffusion
2.4.11. Reference cantilevers
2.4.12. Quality factor
2.4.13. Electrical aspects
2.4.13.1. Wheatstone bridge
2.4.13.2. Feed back loop
2.4.14. Inherent problems
2.4.14.1. Residual stresses
2.4.14.2. Stiction
2.4.15. Effects of temperature
2.4.16. Effects of pressure
3. MEMS SAMPLES
3.1. MikroMasch USA cantilevers
3.2. Chemicals used
3.2.1. Palladium
3.2.2. Hydrogen
3.2.3. Titanium
3.3. Coating process
3.3.1. Complete versus partial coating
3.3.2. Effects of humidity
3.3.3. Time limits
4. METHODOLOGY
4.1. ACES methodology
4.2. Analytical investigations
4.2.1. Sensitivity
4.2.2. Equivalent variables
4.2.3. Gas concentration
4.2.4. Absorption
4.2.4.1. Diffusion rate
4.2.4.2. Volume increase
4.2.4.3. Change in modulus of elasticity
4.2.5. Resonant frequency and frequency shift
4.2.6. Spring constant consideration
4.2.7. Damping coefficient consideration
4.2.8. Free vibration system
4.2.9. Changing stiffness in a free vibration system
4.2.10. Harmonically excited system
4.2.11. Uncertainty analysis
4.3. Computational analysis
4.4. Experimental solutions
4.4.1. Instrument calibration
4.4.2. Geometrical characterization of the cantilevers
4.4.3. SEM – scanning electron microscope
4.4.4. Determination of quality factor and damping coefficient
4.4.5. Optoelectronic methodology
4.4.6. Determination of resonant frequency by AFM
4.4.7. Laser vibrometry
4.4.8. Test chamber
4.5. Data analysis
5. RESULTS
5.1. Microscope and SEM data
Fig. 5.3. Cantilevers packed in a Gel-Pack as obtained from the manufacturer
5.2. Analytical results
5.7. Parameters of the coated cantilever
5.8. Sensitivity solutions
5.9. Absorption
5.10. Determination of the damping coefficient
5.11. Complete cantilever analysis
5.11.1. Case 1: changing mass
5.11.2. Case 2: changing mass and stiffness
5.11.3. Case 3: changing mass with damping
5.11.4. Case 4: changing mass and stiffness with damping
5.11.5. Design equation selection
5.11.6. Lower limit frequency shift
5.11.7. Optimization of the cantilever response
6. CONCLUSIONS
7. REFERENCES
Table A.1. Physical properties of the materials used
APPENDIX B. ANALYTICAL CALCULATIONS
B.1. Fundamental resonance frequency
B.2. Spring constant
B.3. Dynamic mass
B.3.1. Dynamic mass constant
B.4. Sensitivity calculations of the cantilever
B.4.1. Sensitivity of an end-loaded cantilever
B.4.2. Sensitivity of a completely coated cantilever
B.5. Frequency shift for a free, undamped vibration
B.7. Free vibration with viscous damping
B.7.1. Frequency shift for a free, damped vibration
B.8. Harmonically excited system with viscous damping
C.1. Uncertainty in fundamental resonant frequency
C.1.4. Average overall percentage uncertainty in frequency
C.2. Frequency uncertainty in a palladium coated cantilever
C.2.1. Uncertainty in frequency for a free vibrations system
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Published by Roberto Carlos

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Published by: Roberto Carlos on Apr 16, 2012
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