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steel tank design

steel tank design

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Published by Janasheen Bond

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Published by: Janasheen Bond on Apr 16, 2012
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10/09/2013

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Settlement Criteria for SteelOil Storage Tanks
Ali Akhavan-Zanjani
 
 Research Student, Department of Civil engineering, University of Tehran, Iranaakhavan@ut.ac.ir 
 
ABSTRACT
This paper discusess the criteria of settlement in steel tanks which are used to storage oil orgasoline. The steel tank is as a representative of many steel tanks constructed in south of I.R.Iran, that has a ratio between the diameter and the height of order 4 with slenderness ratio(radius to thickness) of the order of 1000 (first coarse) to 3750 (last coarse). weakness of thesite soil causes settlement to be more than usual so the most economical solution is to find howmuch can the settlement be.
KEYWORDS:
steel tank, settlement, tilt, shell
INTRODUCTION
The settlement of the foundation in large, thin walled shells has been of great concern in thepast and there is some codes and articles about it that are so useful. this paper wanted to show thatwhat is the Criteria of allowable settlement of a large and small steel tank. so the paper consideredsome large and small steel tank that are the representative of many steel tanks constructed in southof I.R.Iran.According to D’Orazio and Duncan, examination of the settlement measured for the tanksshows one fact clearly: Steel tank bottoms can undergo a wide variety of types of distortion as theysettle”. However, most analytical studies concentrate on just one type of distortion: a verticaldisplacement pattern at the base of the shell that follows a harmonic shape. In another paper, thesame authors state: “Because their walls have significant stiffness and ability to span local softspots, the settlement profiles of tank walls tend to be smooth and free of sharp variations.
 
Here is one of the disasters that happen because of a tank failure that have been reported in theliterature notably is the report of the failure of a 26.15 m radius shell storing hot-oil in Japan in1974. The consequences of this failure were manifold: “The contents flooded much of the refineryproperty and flowed into the adjacent inland sea causing severe damage to the fishing industry. Asa result, the 270,000 bbl/day refinery was shut down for about nine months, largely because of public reaction. By the time the refinery was permitted to resume operation. The accident had cost
 
Vol. 13, Bund. B 2
the refinery more than $150,000,000. This shows how important and dangerous can the damage of steel tank specially large steel tank be.The paper is organized as follows: section 2 contains the most usual settlement that wouldhappen, section 3 is the case studies and review of literature, section 4 is about the comparison of cited allowable settlement and section 5 wanted to refer recommended settlement.
 
DEFINITIONS
Various forms of settlements could take place so it is crucial to define all required variables atthe beginning of this chapter as follows:
 
=
D
 
Diameter of the tank.
 
=
R
Radius of the tank.
 
=
H
 
Height of the tank.
 
 
=
L
 
distance between two points with differential settlement.
 
 
=Δ
max
Total maximum settlement: This type of settlement illustrates in Figure (2-1
).
Figure 2-1. Total Maximum Settlement of Steel Tank Figure 2-2. Average Settlement of a SteelTank
 
=Δ
ave
Average settlement: This type of settlement is an average of the settlement of allpoints of a tank (Figure 2-2).
 
Figure 2-3. Tilt of a Steel Tank Figure 2-4. Bottom-Edge Differential Settlement of aste ssteel tank
 
=
w
Tilt: This component rotates the tank in a tilt plane (Figure 2-3).
 
=δ
 
Differential settlement between two points.
 
=δ
bottom
 
Edge settlement occurs when the tank shell settles sharply around theperiphery, resulting in deformation of the bottom plate near the shell-to-bottom corner junction, (Figure 2-4), or the depth of the depressed area of the bottom plate, (Figure 2-5).
 
Vol. 13, Bund. B 3
 
=
shell
δ  
 
This component of settlement at the bottom edge leads to the lack of circularity and creates stresses in the shell.
shell
δ
is defined as differential outlinesettlement between settlement of one measurement point with respect to the average of settlements of its two adjacent points (Figure 2-2).
)5.05.0(
11
+
×+×=
iiii
δ  
 
Eq. 2-1.
=
i
δ  
Differential settlement between one point and average settlement of its adjacentpoints
=
i
 
Settlement of each points in Figure (2-6).
Figure 2-5. Bottom-Center Differential Tank Figure 2-6. Shell DifferentialS etsetttlement of a Steel Settlement of Steel Tank
REVIEW OF LITERITURE AND CASE STUDIES FORTHE SETTLEMENT OF STEEL TANKS
It is important to consider steel tanks suffered from excessive settlement in the past. Thereforecase studies in addition to the review of literature, design codes/standards and highly referredpapers, are presented to help a realistic judgment to be undertaken about allowable settlement.Klepikov (1989) reviewed a large number of references related to allowable settlement.According to Klepikov (1989), steel storage tank, with capacity less than 10000 m3 and between20000~20000 m3, could ultimately tolerate 110 mm and 180 mm average settlement (
Δ
avg
)respectively. For small tanks with dimensions of D=9 m and H=8 m in P.L.D area of this project,the capacity is equal to 508.7 m3. For large tanks with dimensions of D=53.6 m and H=18.3 m,the capacity is equal to 41271.5 m3. It should be noted that maximum total settlement (
Δ
max
) isoften larger than average settlement (
Δ
avg
) which is referred by Klepikov (1989). This reference hasalso recommended differential settlement ratio (
δ
 / 
 L
) to be less than 0.004 for bottom of large tanksand less than 0.008 for small ones (
 L=D
), and allowable outline shell settlement is equal to 0.01and 0.008 for large and small tanks respectively (
 L=
6m
)
. And finally tilt (
w/H 
) of all tanks shouldbe less than 0.007. The limit for visible tilt is equal to 0.004.(B) USACE (1990) published an engineering manual, EM 1110-1-1904, for geotechnicalprocedures. It suggests that allowable differential settlement, (
δ
 / 
 L
) for circular steel tanks onflexible base, either with fixed or floating roof, could be consider as equal to 0.008. For large tanksin Mahshahr oil product terminal revamp project
 L=D/2
. The mentioned ratio suggests 213 mmand 36 mm as differential settlement between center and edge for large and small tanksrespectively. As mentioned by a number of authors (Bowles, 1996), differential settlement isconservatively equal to 75% of maximum total settlement, (
Δ
max
). Therefore the allowable totalsettlement could be estimated.

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