Vol. 13, Bund. B 3
This component of settlement at the bottom edge leads to the lack of circularity and creates stresses in the shell.
is defined as differential outlinesettlement between settlement of one measurement point with respect to the average of settlements of its two adjacent points (Figure 2-2).
U U U
Differential settlement between one point and average settlement of its adjacentpoints
Settlement of each points in Figure (2-6).
Figure 2-5. Bottom-Center Differential Tank Figure 2-6. Shell DifferentialS etsetttlement of a Steel Settlement of Steel Tank
REVIEW OF LITERITURE AND CASE STUDIES FORTHE SETTLEMENT OF STEEL TANKS
It is important to consider steel tanks suffered from excessive settlement in the past. Thereforecase studies in addition to the review of literature, design codes/standards and highly referredpapers, are presented to help a realistic judgment to be undertaken about allowable settlement.Klepikov (1989) reviewed a large number of references related to allowable settlement.According to Klepikov (1989), steel storage tank, with capacity less than 10000 m3 and between20000~20000 m3, could ultimately tolerate 110 mm and 180 mm average settlement (
)respectively. For small tanks with dimensions of D=9 m and H=8 m in P.L.D area of this project,the capacity is equal to 508.7 m3. For large tanks with dimensions of D=53.6 m and H=18.3 m,the capacity is equal to 41271.5 m3. It should be noted that maximum total settlement (
) isoften larger than average settlement (
) which is referred by Klepikov (1989). This reference hasalso recommended differential settlement ratio (
) to be less than 0.004 for bottom of large tanksand less than 0.008 for small ones (
), and allowable outline shell settlement is equal to 0.01and 0.008 for large and small tanks respectively (
. And finally tilt (
) of all tanks shouldbe less than 0.007. The limit for visible tilt is equal to 0.004.(B) USACE (1990) published an engineering manual, EM 1110-1-1904, for geotechnicalprocedures. It suggests that allowable differential settlement, (
) for circular steel tanks onflexible base, either with fixed or floating roof, could be consider as equal to 0.008. For large tanksin Mahshahr oil product terminal revamp project
. The mentioned ratio suggests 213 mmand 36 mm as differential settlement between center and edge for large and small tanksrespectively. As mentioned by a number of authors (Bowles, 1996), differential settlement isconservatively equal to 75% of maximum total settlement, (
). Therefore the allowable totalsettlement could be estimated.