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Engineering

Engineering

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Published by Udit
A brief view on what exactly does engineering means
A brief view on what exactly does engineering means

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Published by: Udit on Dec 15, 2008
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Engineering
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Engineering
is thedisciplineand profession of applyingtechnicalandscientific  knowledgeand utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design andimplementmaterials, structures,machines, devices, systems,and  processesthat safely realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. TheAmerican Engineers' Councilfor Professional Development(ECPD, the predecessor of ABET
 
) has definedengineering as follows:“[T]he creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures,machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or incombination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intendedfunction, economics of operation and safety to life and property.”
One who practices engineering is called an
, and those licensed to do so mayhave more formal designations such asEuropean Engineer , Professional Engineer ,  Chartered Engineer , or Incorporated Engineer .The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized subdisciplines, each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology.
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[edit] History
TheWatt steam engine, a major driver in theindustrial revolution, underscores the importance of engineering in modern history. This model is on display at the main building of the ETSIIM in Madrid, SpainThe
concept 
of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devisedfundamental inventions such as the  pulley, lever , andwheel. Each of these inventions is consistent with the modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop usefultools and objects. The term
engineering 
itself has a much more recent etymology, deriving from the word
engineer 
, which itself dates back to 1325, when an
engine’er 
(literally, one who operatesan
engine
) originally referred to “a constructor of military engines.”
In this context,now obsolete, an “engine” referred to a military machine,
i. e.
, a mechanical contraptionused in war (for example, acatapult). The word “engine” itself is of even older origin,ultimately deriving from theLatin 
ingenium
(c. 1250), meaning “innate quality,especially mental power, hence a clever invention.”
Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as atechnical discipline, the term civil engineering
 entered the lexicon as a way todistinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projectsand those involved in the older discipline of military engineering(the original meaning of the word “engineering,” now largely obsolete, with notable exceptions that have survivedto the present day such as military engineering corps,
e. g.
 
).
 
[edit] Ancient Era
TheAcropolisand theParthenoninGreece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appiaand the Colosseum, theHanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria, the  pyramids in Egypt,Teotihuacánand the cities and pyramids of theMayan, Incaand AztecEmpires, theGreat Wall of China, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity andskill of the ancient civil and military engineers.The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep.
As one of the officials of thePharaoh, Djosèr , he probably designed and supervised the construction of thePyramid of  Djoser (theStep Pyramid) atSaqqarainEgyptaround2630-2611 BC.
He may alsohave been responsible for the first known use of  columns in architecture.
[
 
]
Ancient Greecedeveloped machines in both in the civilian and military domains. TheAntikythera mechanism, the earliest known model of amechanical computer  in history, and the mechanical inventionsof  Archimedesare examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanismrequired sophisticated knowledge of differential gearingor epicyclic gearing, two key  principles in machine theory that helped design thegear trains of the Industrial revolution and are still widely used today in diverse fields such asroboticsandautomotive engineering.
Chinese and Roman armies employed complex military machines including the Ballistaand catapult. In the Middle Ages, the Trebuchetwas developed.
[edit] Middle Era
An Iraqi by the name of al-Jazarihelped influence the design of today's modern machineswhen sometime in between 1174 and 1200 he built five machines to pump water for thekings of theTurkish Artuqid dynasty and their   palaces. The double-acting reciprocating  piston pump was instrumental in the later development of engineering in general becauseit was the first machine to incorporate both theconnecting rodand the crankshaft, thus, convertingrotational motion toreciprocatingmotion.
British Charter Engineer Donald Routledge Hill once wrote: It is impossible to over emphasize the importance of al-Jazari's work in the history of engineering, it provides a wealth of instructions for the design, manufacture and assemblyof machines.
[
 
]
Even today some toys still use thecam-lever  mechanism found inal-Jazari'scombination lock andautomaton. Besides over 50 ingenious mechanical devices, al-Jazari also developed and made innovations to segmental gears, mechanical controls,escapement mechanisms, clocks, robotics, and protocols for designing and manufacturing methods.
[edit] Renaissance Era

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