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A Cartographic Fade to Black: Mapping the Destruction of Urban Japan

A Cartographic Fade to Black: Mapping the Destruction of Urban Japan

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Published by JapanAirRaids
In this paper we examine the history, production, and use – practical and rhetorical – of maps created by the United States government during World War II as related to the development and execution of aerial bombing policies against Japan. Drawing from a range of maps and primary documents culled from libraries and archives in the United States, we argue that maps provide an important, and hitherto neglected, means through which to trace the exploration and eventual embrace of the incendiary bombing of Japan’s cities. In particular, our aim is to show how maps, along with the men who made and used them, played a central role in the planning and prosecution of air raids on urban Japan. We also address the mobilization of American geographers into the war effort, the re-configuration of America’s spatial intelligence community during World War II, and the ways in which maps were constructed in the context of total war.
In this paper we examine the history, production, and use – practical and rhetorical – of maps created by the United States government during World War II as related to the development and execution of aerial bombing policies against Japan. Drawing from a range of maps and primary documents culled from libraries and archives in the United States, we argue that maps provide an important, and hitherto neglected, means through which to trace the exploration and eventual embrace of the incendiary bombing of Japan’s cities. In particular, our aim is to show how maps, along with the men who made and used them, played a central role in the planning and prosecution of air raids on urban Japan. We also address the mobilization of American geographers into the war effort, the re-configuration of America’s spatial intelligence community during World War II, and the ways in which maps were constructed in the context of total war.

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Published by: JapanAirRaids on Apr 17, 2012
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Ch| tfm nemb|m~t b|tan}ebtah` hc wfbt a~ omb`t lqb
n}et}|m hc wb|
a` tfm nh`tmvt hc Wh|ed Wb| AA ~mm tfm A`t|hd}ntah` th K. Dhwm|%
N}et}|m~ hc Wb|; Zmb|e Fb|lh|; Fa|h~faob;1
m
22; A|br
% @mw Qh|i% <:2:.
22
Ch| b` mvfb}~tasm t|mbtom`t hc tfm tmnf`hehganbe cb`btana~o tfbt nfb|bntm|a{md WWAA b~ at |mebtm~ th ba| zhwm| ~mm ^fm||q%
Tfm \a~m hc Bom|anb` Ba| Zhwm| 
&`htm1!.
2<
^mm ^medm`% B ch|ghttm` fhehnb}~t &`htm1!.
2>
Tfm neb~~an t|mbtom`t hc tfm |bnm fbtm~ c}mea`g Wh|ed Wb| AA a~ K. Dhwm|%
Wb| watfh}t Om|nq; \bnm b`d Zhwm| a` tfm Zbna
 fl
n Wb| 
% @mw Qh|i% 2163.
24
 K.L. Fb|emq%
Tfm @mw @bt}|m hc Obz~; M~~bq~ a` tfm Fa~th|q hc Nb|thg|bzfq
% Lbetaoh|m% <::2% 3:.
2=
Ch| dmtbaemd t|mbtom`t hc tfm h|aga`~ hc tfa~ nhozemv ~mm ^. Em~eam%
Tfm Nhed Wb| b`d Bom|anb` ^nam`nm; Tfm Oaeatb|q
m
A`d}~t|abe
m
 Bnbdmoan Nhozemv bt OAT b`d ^tb`ch|d
%@mw Qh|i% 211>.
23
^mm% ch| mvbozem% L. Fb|emq% Dmnh`~t|}nta`g tfm obz%
Nb|thg|bzfanb
<3 &2161! 2
m
<:9 K. N|bozth`%
Obzza`g; B N|atanbe A`t|hd}ntah` th Nb|thg|bzfq b`d GA^ 
% Obedm`% OB%<:2:9 D. Whhd%
\m/tfa`ia`g tfm Zhwm| hc Obz~
% @mw Qh|i% <:2:.
D. Cmdob`% N. Ib|bnb~ ( Kh}|`be hc Fa~th|anbe Gmhg|bzfq >6 &<:2<! >:3 
m
 ><6
>:7
 
nhda`g waee dh o}nf th m`fb`nm h}| }`dm|~tb`da`g `ht h`eq hc tfma``m|/wh|ia`g~ b`d ~zbtabe ~m`~alaeatam~ hc tfm wb|taom a`tmeeagm`nmb`d ~t|btmgan zeb``a`g nhoo}`atq% l}t be~h hc tfm wbq~ a` wfanf Kbzb`/|mebtmd obz~ obdm d}|a`g Wh|ed Wb| AA lmb| tfm aoz|a`t hc thtbe wb|.
Ohlaea{a`g tfm obz b`d at~ obim|~
Wb| fb~ lmm` h`m hc tfm g|mbtm~t gmhg|bzfm|~
Bom|anb
~ m`t|b`nm a`th Wh|ed Wb| AA z|mnazatbtmd b` }`z|mnm/dm`tmd ohlaea{btah` hc tfm `btah`
~ |m~h}|nm~
m
mnh`hoan% oaeatb|q%
b`d
gmhg|bzfan. @h msm`t z|hsadmd b nbtbeq{a`g khet th tfa~ ohla/ea{btah` oh|m tfb` tfm Kbzb`m~m bttbni h` Zmb|e Fb|lh|. Betfh}gfnh`nm|`~ blh}t tfm whmc}e ~tbtm hc oaeatb|q a`tmeeagm`nm ~m|sanm~wmeez|mdbtmtfmmsm`t~hcDmnmolm|7%2142%tfmbttbniobdmbeethhnemb| tfm cbnt tfbt% b~ Khf` I|am~ w|atm~% tfm ].^. oaeatb|q
fbd `hmccmntasm nm`t|be h|gb`a{btah` |m~zh`~alem ch| nheemnta`g% b`beq{a`g%b`d da~~moa`bta`g dbtb blh}t m`moam~ h| zhtm`tabe m`moam~.
Tfmtb~ihcn|mbta`g~}nfb`a`tmeeagm`nmh|gb`a{btah`cmeethtfmHc 
nmhc tfm Nh/h|da`bth| hc A`ch|obtah` &|m/nh`
g}|md b~ tfm H^^ tfmcheehwa`g qmb|!% nhooa~~ah`md lq Z|m~adm`tabe H|dm| h` K}eq 22%2142 b`d z}t }`dm| tfm da|mntah` hc Laee Dh`hsb`. At wb~ watfa` tfm|b`i~hctfmNHA(H^^`mv}~tfbtBom|anb`gmhg|bzfm|~%a`tmeeagm`nmmvzm|t~% b`d ~nam`ta
n ~zmnabea~t~ &a` bddatah` th b ~obee nh`ta`gm`thc áoag|á nh`t|al}th|~!% wh|imd th hsm|fb}e ~zbtabe a`tmeeagm`nm thommt tfm gmhg|bzfanbe dmob`d~ hc tfm wb| mcch|t.
Lq 214>%Nfb}`nq Fb||a~% b gmhg|bzfm| }`dm| tfm mozehq hc tfm H^^% nh}ed|mob|itfbt
tfm|mb|m z|hlbleq oh|m gmhg|bzfm|~`hwwh|ia`g ch|tfm ghsm|`om`t a` Wb~fa`gth` D.N. tfb` fbsm msm| lmch|m a` tfmwh|ed
~ fa~th|q lmm` b~~molemd a` b`q h`m natq.
Tfm Obz Dasa~ah` hc tfm H^^ \m~mb|nf b`d B`beq~a~ }`atnh`~tat}tmd tfm fhtfh}~m ch| wb|taom obz z|hd}ntah`. Watf wh|izb|nmemd h}t boh`g ch}| ~}l/~mntah`~ &nb|thg|bzfq% obz a`tmeea/gm`nm% thzhg|bzfan ohdme~% b`d ~zmnabe zfhthg|bzfq!% b`d a`ch|/obtah` nhozaemd c|ho b `mtwh|i hc gmhg|bzfm|~% nb|thg|bzfm|~%d|bct~om`% b`d a`tmeeagm`nm hzm|btasm~ bn|h~~ tfm gehlm% b ~tbcc hc 2=: om` emd lq B|tf}| \hla`~h` z|hd}nmd ~hom 6::: obz~ hsm|tfm nh}|~m hc tfm wb|.
B~ Laee Dh`hsb`
~ bch|mom`tah`md |bdah bdd|m~~ ~}ggm~t~% tfmbnr}a~atah` hc nb|thg|bzfan obtm|abe~ nh`~tat}tmd b fagf z|ah|atq bttfmlmga``a`ghctfmwb|.Tfa~a~m~zmnabeeqt|}mhcB~aba`gm`m|beb`d Kbzb` a` zb|tan}eb|% ch| wfanf tfm H^^ Obz Dasa~ah` ch}`d at oh|mdac 
n}et th ~mn}|m obz~ b`d htfm| ~zbtabe a`tmeeagm`nm tfb` ch| tfmnh}`t|am~ a` M}|hzm.
Tfm dasa~ah` f}`tmd dhw` obz~ a` tfmDmzb|tom`t hc ^tbtm% @btah`be B|nfasm~% B|oq Obz ^m|sanm% Fqd|h/g|bzfan Hc 
nm% b`d htfm| ghsm|`om`t bgm`nam~. H` hnnb~ah` at~t}olemd}zh`t|hsm~a`}`mvzmntmdzebnm~%~}nfb~tfmda~nhsm|qa`214<hchsm|2<::thzhg|bzfanobz~hcKbzb`~tb~fmdbwbqa`bsb}etwatfa`tfmDmzb|tom`thcBg|an}et}|m.Bnnh|da`gthEmh`b|dWae~h`%ch|om|fmbdhctfmObzDasa~ah`%tfa~|mz|m~m`tmdbdh}lea`ghc 
tfmnhola`md fheda`g~ hc tfm B|oq Obz ^m|sanm b`d tfm Fqd|hg|bzfanHc 
nm.
Tfmq be~h t}|`md th }`asm|~atq eal|b|am~%
lhhidmbem|~~zmnabea{a`ga`ch|mag`z}leanbtah`~%
b`dtfmz|asbtmobznheemntah`~hc~nfheb|~.
Gehlbeeq%|mgah`bedasa~ah`~hctfmH^^
m
M}|hzm(Bc|anb%Ebta` Bom|anb% Cb| Mb~tm|`% b`d htfm|~
m
da~zbtnfmd hzm|btasm~ a`thtfm
med th nheemnt obz ~fmmt~ b`d htfm| ch|o~ hc ~zbtabe a`tmeea/gm`nm. ^}nf obz nheemntah` omb~}|m~ beemsabtmd tfm a`atabe nh`nm|`~|mgb|da`g tfm zhsm|tq hc ~zbtabe a`ch|obtah` h` Kbzb` b`d beehwmdnb|thg|bzfm|~ th nhllem thgmtfm| tfm obtm|abe~ |mr}a|md th z|hd}nmtfma| hw` |mz|m~m`tbtah`~ hc Kbzb`m~m ~zbnm.Tfm H^^
~ Gmhg|bzfq Dasa~ah` msm`t}beeq fbd bt at~ da~zh~bebzbtnfwh|ihcnb|thg|bzfan~h}|nm~%boh`gwfanfKbzb`/z|hd}nmdobz~ b`d bteb~m~ cmbt}|md z|hoa`m`teq. A` tfa~ ~m`~m% tfm Kbzb`m~mGhsm|`om`t% wfanf ch| dmnbdm~ fbd da~zbtnfmd ~}|smqh|~ th nb||qh}t eb`d ~}|smq~ bn|h~~ at~ moza|m% zebqmd b |hem a` at~ msm`t}bedm~t|}ntah`.
Zb|tan}eb|eq }~mc}e wm|m Kbzb`m~m Aozm|abe Eb`d^}|smq obz~ z|hd}nmd lmtwmm` 261: b`d 214:% m~zmnabeeq tfh~mebtm| mdatah`~ tfbt a`ne}dmd dh{m`~ hc }z/th/dbtm natq zeb`~.
Tfm
`meqdmtbaemd2144H^^Obz
Natq Zeb`hc Thiqh
&Cag.2!%ch|mvbozem%nh}ed h`eq lm d|bw` lmnb}~m nb|thg|bzfm|~ fbd `}om|h}~ Kbzb/`m~m obz~ hc tfm nbzatbe bt tfma| da~zh~be.
C|ho Kbzb`m~m b`d htfm| ~h}|nm~% H^^ nb|thg|bzfm|~ z|hd}nmdob`q obz~ hc Kbzb`. H}tea`m obz~ ~fhwmd Kbzb` watfa` tfmnh`tmvt hc B~ab b`d lq at~ a`dasad}be z|mcmnt}|m~. Tfmobtan obz~chn}~mdh`b|mb~~}nfb~Kbzb`
~ba|n|bct%zmt|hem}o%be}oa`}o%b`d|}llm| a`d}~t|am~. A` bddatah` th tfm Thiqh Natq Zeb` obzom`tah`md blhsm% nb|thg|bzfm|~ n|mbtmd ob`q obz~ tfbt chn}~mdh` Kbzb`
~ natam~. Tfmq fagfeagftmd |hbd `mtwh|i~ &H^^ Obz `h.>=7!9 tfm Kbzb`/wadm }|lb` `mtwh|i &`h. 6=4!9 natam~ lb~md h`c}`ntah`be tqzm
m
dasm|~a
md% ob`}cbnt}|a`g% ghsm|`om`t% t|bdm%t|b`~zh|tbtah`% oa`a`g%
~fa`g% b`d ~f|a`m &`h. =<17!9 b`d tfmehnbtah` hc zhwm| gm`m|bta`g cbnaeatam~ b`d da~t|al}tah` hc wbtm|~}zzeam~ ch| ~memnt natam~. ^hom obz~ chn}~md h` natam~ watf zhz/}ebtah`~ hc hsm| 2::%::: zmhzem ch| tfm qmb|~ 267:%21::%21>: b`d214: &`h~. >42
m
>4>% 737!. Tfm H^^ be~h obzzmd h}t tfm zeb`~ ch|natam~ |b`ga`g a` tm|o~ hc zhz}ebtah` c|ho tfm Thiqh omt|hzhea~%om`tah`md blhsm% watf at~ oaeeah`~ hc |m~adm`t~ th Kbzb`
~ `h|tf/m|`oh~t thw`% Wbiib`ba% ehnbtmd h` b zm`a`~}eb| taz hc Fhiibadhtfbt k}t~ blhsm 4=
`h|tf b`d ~m|smd b~ tfm fhom th k}~t b cmwtfh}~b`d zmhzem &`h. =<31!.
27
G. Ghedam% Gmhg|bzfanbe admbe~%
Gmhg|bzfanbe Kh}|`be
<1 &21:7! 6.
26
I|am~%
Zam|na`g tfm Chg 
&`htm=!% <
m
>.
21
Ch| b oh|m
`m/g|ba`md b`beq~a~ hc tfm nhozh~atah` hc tfa~ g|h}z hc gmhg|bzfm|~ ~mm T. Lb|`m~ b`d O. Cb|a~f% Lmtwmm` |mgah`~; ~nam`nm% oaeatb|a~o% b`d Bom|anb`gmhg|bzfq c|howh|ed wb| th nhed wb|%
B``be~ hc tfm B~~hnabtah` hc Bom|anb` Gmhg|bzfm|~
13 &<::3! 6:7
m
6<39 T. Lb|`m~% Gmhg|bzfanbe a`tmeeagm`nm; Bom|anb` gmhg|bzfm|~ b`d|m~mb|nf b`d b`beq~a~ a` tfm Hc 
nm hc ^t|btmgan ^m|sanm~% 2142
m
214=%
Kh}|`be hc Fa~th|anbe Gmhg|bzfq
>< &<::3! 241
m
236.
<:
N. Fb||a~% Gmhg|bzfm|~ a` tfm ].^. ghsm|`om`t a` Wb~fa`gth`% DN% d}|a`g Wh|ed Wb| AA%
Z|hcm~~ah`be Gmhg|bzfm| 
41 &2117! <43.
<2
A` bddatah` th \hla`~h`% htfm|~ gmhg|bzfm|~ bttbnfmd thtfm H^^ wfhwh}ed ebtm| |a~m thz|hoa`m`t bnbdmoan zh~atah`~ a`ne}dmd \anfb|dFb|t~fh|`m% Mdwb|d ]eeob`% Ia|i^th`m% Khm ^zm`nm|% K.L. Bzzemth`% b`d Emh`b|d Wae~h`. ^mm K. N|bozth` b`d T. Lb|`m~ Obzza`g a`tmeeagm`nm; Bom|anb` gmhg|bzfm|~ b`d tfm Hc 
nm hc ^t|btmgan ^m|sanm~ b`dGFR(^NBZ &Thiqh!% a`; ^. Ia|~nf% N. Cea`t &Md~!%
\mnh`~t|}nta`g Nh`
 ﬌
ant; A`tmg|bta`g Wb| b`d Zh~t/wb| Gmhg|bzfam~
% L}|ea`gth`% <:22% <>4.
<<
Fb||a~% Gmhg|bzfm|~ a` tfm ].^. ghsm|`om`t a` Wb~fa`gth`% DN% d}|a`g Wh|ed Wb| AA &`htm<:!% <=>
m
<=4.
<>
Wae~h`% Em~~h`~ c|ho tfm mvzm|am`nm hc tfm obz a`ch|obtah` ~mntah`% H^^ &`htm 4!.
<4
Ch| c}|tfm| da~n}~~ah` hc tfm wbq~ a` wfanf tfm a`tmeeagm`nm nhoo}`atq gbtfm|md ~zbtabe a`tmeeagm`nm ~mm Wae~h`% Em~~h`~ c|ho tfm mvzm|am`nm hc tfm obz a`ch|obtah`~mntah`% H^^ &`htm4!9 Mvzm|t hccm|~ 2=:: Obz~ ch| Wb| ]~m9 Z|hd}nt hc >::%::: Oaem~ hc T|bsme%
@mw Qh|i Taom~
% <3 K}eq 214<%239 Eal|b|ab`~
Boo}`atah`9 ^zmnabea~t~ Z|hsadmtfm Ghsm|`om`t watf O}nf Sbe}blem Obtm|abe ch| Wb|%
@mw Qh|i Taom~
% <: K}`m% 214>% 2:.
<=
Ch| b tfh|h}gf b`beq~a~ hc tfm eb`d ~}|smq a` Kbzb` ~mm I. Tbibga%
@afh` `a him|} nfa{} ~hi}|q
h `h fbttbt~} `a ib` ~}|} im`iq
}
% Thiqh%2133. Ch| b l|hbd t|mbtom`t hc eb`d~}|smq~ nh`d}ntmd bn|h~~ tfm Kbzb`m~m moza|m b`d tfm z|hd}ntah` hc obz~ lq tfm Kbzb`m~m oaeatb|q ~mm ^. Ihlbqb~fa%
Gbaf
h{}; Tmaihi} `afh` `h bkab nfa{}
% Thiqh% <:22.
<3
 Kha`t B|oq/@bsq A`tmeeagm`nm ^t}dam~%
Nfbztm| VS% Kha`t B|oq/@bsq A`tmeeagm`nm ^t}dq hc Nm`t|be Kbzb`; Nm`t|be b`d @h|tfm|` Fh`~f} Gb{mttmm| b`d Obz Bzz|ba~be
% Kha`tA`tmeeagm`nm ^t}dq Z}l. Lhb|d% Wb~fa`gth` D.N. Hnthlm| 2144.
<7
Tfm~m obz~ a`ne}dmd b dmtbaemd 2;2:%::: ~nbem 21>< Aozm|abe Eb`d ^}|smq obz hc tfm natq% b 21>=
Obz hc Thiqh b`d Qhihfbob
% b 21>3
Obz hc G|mbtm| Thiqh lq Wb|d%
b`db 214:
@mw Ohdme Obz hc G|mbtm| Thiqh
.
D. Cmdob`% N. Ib|bnb~ ( Kh}|`be hc Fa~th|anbe Gmhg|bzfq >6 &<:2<! >:3 
m
 ><6
>:6

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