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RHEL 6 Performance Tuning Guide

RHEL 6 Performance Tuning Guide

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Published by: g3nu1n3 on Apr 17, 2012
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6Performance Tuning Guide
Optimizing subsystem throughput in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6Red Hat Subject Matter Experts
 
Performance Tuning Guide
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Performance Tuning GuideOptimizing subsystem throughput in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6Edition 1.0
AuthorRed Hat Subject Matter ExpertsEditorDon DomingoEditorLaura BaileyCopyright
©
2011 Red Hat, Inc. and others.The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative CommonsAttribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is availableat
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ 
. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute thisdocument or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert,Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the InfinityLogo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.Linux
®
is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.Java
®
is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.XFS
®
is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United Statesand/or other countries.MySQL
®
is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and othercountries.All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.1801 Varsity DriveRaleigh, NC 27606-2072 USAPhone: +1 919 754 3700Phone: 888 733 4281Fax: +1 919 754 3701The
Performance Tuning Guide
describes how to optimize the performance of a system running RedHat Enterprise Linux 6. It also documents performance-related upgrades in Red Hat Enterprise Linux6.While this guide contains procedures that are field-tested and proven, Red Hat recommends that youproperly test all planned configurations in a testing environment before applying it to a productionenvironment. You should also back up all your data and pre-tuning configurations.
 
iii
Preface v
1. Document Conventions ................................................................................................... v1.1. Typographic Conventions ...................................................................................... v1.2. Pull-quote Conventions ........................................................................................ vi1.3. Notes and Warnings ............................................................................................ vii2. Getting Help andGiving Feedback ................................................................................. vii2.1. Do You Need Help? ............................................................................................ vii2.2. We NeedFeedback! ........................................................................................... viii
1. Overview 1
1.1. Audience ..................................................................................................................... 11.2. Horizontal Scalability .................................................................................................... 21.2.1. Parallel Computing ............................................................................................ 21.3. Distributed Systems...................................................................................................... 31.3.1. Communication .................................................................................................. 31.3.2. Storage............................................................................................................. 41.3.3. Converged Networks ......................................................................................... 6
2. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Performance Features7
2.1. 64-Bit Support.............................................................................................................. 72.2. Ticket Spinlocks ........................................................................................................... 72.3. Dynamic List Structure ................................................................................................. 82.4. TicklessKernel ............................................................................................................. 82.5. Control Groups ............................................................................................................ 92.6. Storage and File System Improvements ...................................................................... 10
3. Monitoring and AnalyzingSystem Performance 13
3.1. The proc File System ................................................................................................. 133.2. GNOME and KDE System Monitors ............................................................................ 133.3. Built-in Command-line Monitoring Tools....................................................................... 143.4. Tuned and ktune ........................................................................................................ 153.5. Application Profilers .................................................................................................... 153.5.1. SystemTap ...................................................................................................... 153.5.2. OProfile........................................................................................................... 163.5.3. Valgrind ........................................................................................................... 163.5.4. Perf ................................................................................................................. 173.6. Red Hat Enterprise MRG ............................................................................................ 17
4. CPU 19
4.1. CPU and NUMA Topology .......................................................................................... 194.1.1. Using numactl and libnuma .............................................................................. 214.2. NUMA and Multi-Core Support .................................................................................... 224.3. NUMA enhancements in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 .................................................... 244.3.1. Bare-metal and scalability optimizations ............................................................ 254.3.2. Virtualizationoptimizations ............................................................................... 254.4. CPU Scheduler .......................................................................................................... 264.4.1. Realtime scheduling policies ............................................................................ 264.4.2. Normalscheduling policies ............................................................................... 274.4.3. Policy Selection ............................................................................................... 274.5. Tuned IRQs ............................................................................................................... 28
5. Memory 31
5.1. Huge Translation Lookaside Buffer (HugeTLB) ............................................................. 315.2. Huge Pages and Transparent Huge Pages .................................................................. 315.3. Capacity Tuning ......................................................................................................... 325.4. Tuning VirtualMemory ................................................................................................ 34

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