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Published by eugenia_aizcorbe147
The paper describes the changes in education from the Middle Ages to the Modern Times and some factors that influenced it troughout the century
The paper describes the changes in education from the Middle Ages to the Modern Times and some factors that influenced it troughout the century

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Published by: eugenia_aizcorbe147 on Dec 16, 2008
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Development1.Middle Ages1.1Overview
People in the Middle Ages lived on a manor, which consisted of the castle, thechurch, the village, and the surrounding farm land. These manors were isolated, withoccasional visits from peddlers, pilgrims on their way to the Crusades, or soldiers fromother fiefdoms.In this "feudal" system, the king awarded land grants or "fiefs" to his mostimportant nobles, his barons, and his bishops, in return for their contribution of soldiersfor the king's armies. At the lowest echelon of society were the peasants, also called"serfs" or "villains." In exchange for living and working on his land, known as the"demesne," the lord offered his peasants protection.Peasants worked the land and produced the goods that the lord and his manor needed. This exchange was not without hardship for the serfs. They were heavily taxedand were required to relinquish much of what they harvested. Nobles divided their land among the lesser nobility, who became their servantsor "vassals." Many of these vassals became so powerful that the kings had difficultycontrolling them. By 1100, certain barons had castles and courts that rivalled the king's;they could be serious threats if they were not pleased in their dealings with the crown.
During theMiddle Ages, or the medieval period, which lasted roughly from the5th to the 15th century, Western society and education were heavily shaped byChristianity, particularly theRoman Catholic Church.The Church operated parish,chapel, and monastery schools at the elementary level. Schools in monasteries andcathedrals offered secondary education. Much of the teaching in these schools wasdirected at learning Latin, the old Roman language used by the church in its ceremoniesand teachings. The church provided some limited opportunities for the education of women in religious communities or convents. Convents had libraries and schools tohelp prepare nuns to follow the religious rules of their communities. Merchant and craft1
guildsalso maintained some schools that provided basic education and training inspecific crafts. Knights received training in military tactics and the code of chivalry.As in the Greek and Roman eras, only a minority of people went to schoolduring the medieval period. Schools were attended primarily by persons planning toenter religious life such as priests, monks, or nuns. The vast majority of people wereserfs who served as agricultural workers on the estates of feudal lords. The serfs, whodid not attend school, were generally illiterateIn the 11th century medieval scholars developedScholasticism,a philosophicaland educational movement that used both human reason and revelations from the Bible
, philosophic and theological movement that attempted to use naturalhuman reason, in particular, the philosophy and science of Aristotle, to understand thesupernatural content of Christian revelation. It was dominant in the medieval Christianschools and universities of Europe from about the middle of the 11th century to aboutthe middle of the 15th century. The ultimate ideal of the movement was to integrate intoan ordered system both the natural wisdom of Greece and Rome and the religiouswisdom of Christianity.
Formal education was unusual in the Middle Ages, although by the fifteenthcentury there were schooling options to prepare a child for his future. Some cities suchas London had schools that children of both genders attended during the day. Here theylearned to read and write a skill that became a prerequisite for acceptance as anapprentice in many Guilds.A small percentage of peasant children managed to attend school in order tolearn how to read and write and understand basic math; this usually took place at amonastery. For this education, their parents had to pay the lord a fine. Noble girls, and on occasion boys were sometimes sent to live in nunneries inorder to receive basic schooling. Nuns would teach them to read (and possibly to write)and make sure they knew their prayers. Girls were very likely taught spinning andneedlework and other domestic skills to prepare them for marriage. Occasionally suchstudents would become nuns themselves.2
If a child was to become a serious scholar, his path usually lay in themonastic life, an option that was rarely open to or sought by the average townsman or peasant.Only those boys with the most notable acumen were chosen from these ranks; they werethen raised by the monks. Children at monasteries were most often younger sons of noble families, who were known to "give their children to the church" in the earlyMiddle Ages.
1.2.2Curriculum contents
The medieval course of study was divided into the elementary trivium and themore advanced quadrivium. The trivium comprised grammar, which included the studyof literature; dialectic or logic; and rhetoric, which also covered the study of law.Completion of the trivium entitled the student to a bachelor's degree. The quadriviumcomprised arithmetic; geometry, which included geography and natural history;astronomy, to which astrology was often added; and music, chiefly that of the church.Once the quadrivium had been completed, the student was awarded a master of arts.
2.Modern Times2.1Overview
The Early Modern period spans the three centuries between theMiddle AgesandtheIndustrial Revolution, roughly from 1500 to 1800. As such, the early modern periodrepresents the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of feudalism, serfdom and the power of theCatholic Church. 
2.2Reformation and Protestantism
The Reformation, traditionally described has having been begun by MartinLuther in 1517, was the movement which gave rise to Protestant churches and thedecline of the power of Roman Catholicism. The Reformation sought to "reform"Christianity by returning it to original beliefs based solely on reference to the Bible,eliminating later additions which accumulated in tradition.The causes of the Reformation cannot be located in any one event or in any oneaspect of medieval society. It wasn't just a matter of religion or politics or social3

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