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2008 Handout 1

2008 Handout 1

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Published by: AffNeg.Com on Dec 16, 2008
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Definitions and Topic Background Handout
2008-2009 Topic Paragraph developed by the framers of the resolution
The demand for energy worldwide is expected to grow over 50 percent by 2030, and mosteconomies are fundamentally fossil-fuel based. International competition for these fossil fuels isgrowing intense and access to oil especially is often located in places that are geographically hard toreach and geopolitically challenging. The United States federal government needs to articulate asound and sustainable energy policy that pursues alternative energy resources, so that it has accessto available, sustainable and secure sources that move the country away from its addiction to fossilfuels. Affirmative plans would require the use of incentives to promote alternative energy sources,including but not limited to solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric and nuclear power, as well as, biofuels, hydrogen fuels, new technologies and conservation measures. Negative approaches to thetopic would include a number of case specific solvency debates, the problems and impacts of usinggovernment incentives and many different disadvantage scenarios such as foreign policyimplications of decreasing oil imports, collapse of economies such as those of the Middle East andRussia and disadvantages specific to particular affirmative solutions. Counterplan ground mightinclude states/private industry, as well as international solutions, and critical argumentation mightinclude capitalism and the environment. Current federal policy tends to support big oil and other fossil fuel companies; ultimately, our very civilization will pay a high price for our lack of oversightand action on the issue of energy.
Words and Phrases, Vol 40, 1964 p. 761. (citing the court case Bank of Chatham v. Arendall)
Substantial is defined as “important essential, material”
Words and Phrases, Vol 40, 1964 p. 761. (citing White v. City of Ottawa) Illinois Court of Appeals wrote
“Substantial means in substance, in the mail, essential, including material or essential part.”
Landau, Sidney. Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000, p. 867.
“Substantial: large in size, value, or importance”
Lindberg, Christine. (editor) Oxford College Dictionary, 2
edition, 2007, p. 1369.
“Substantial: of considerable importance; size; or worth”
Lindberg, Christine. (editor) Oxford College Dictionary, 2
edition, 2007, p. 1369.
“Substantially: to a great of significant extent”
Webster’s Third New International Dictionary Unabridged 1981, p. 1145.
Increase: to make greater in some respect (as in bulk, quantity, extent, value, or amount)Corpus Juris Secundum, Vol. 42, 1944, p. 546“The term presupposes the existence in some measure, or to some extent, of something which may be enlarged, connotes a change or alteration in the original and has been defined as meaning toextend or enlarge in size, extent, quantity, number, intensity, value, substance, etc.”
Corpus Juris Secundum, Vol. 42, 1944, p. 546
Increase: It is derived from ‘cresco,’ to grow and implies the existence of something made, or to bemade, the subject of the increase.”
2007 Words and Phrases Cumulative Supplementary Pamphlet, Vol 20A, 2007, p. 76.
“A durational modification of child support is as much an ‘increase’ as a monetary modification.”
 Alternative Energy
Simon, Christopher (professor of political science U of Nevada-Reno). Alternative Energy:Political, Economic, and Social Feasibility, 2007, p. 39-40.
“The federal definition of alternative energy is best summarized by Title 25, Chapter 79 %7701 of the revised US Code: “The term ‘alternative energy facility’ means a facility for producing electricalor thermal energy if the primary energy source for the facility is not oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear  power.” The primary purpose of this definition relates to the issuance if tax credits to ‘alternativeenergy facilities,’ which meet certain standards as defined in Title 26 Chapter 1 %48 “EnergyCredit”. Tax credits are one method by which the federal government encourages the private sector to make certain economic choices; in the case of energy policy, this definition of alternative energywill have a definitive impact on how alternative energy will be defined by those individuals andcorporate bodies seeking federal recognition (and benefit) by adopting a particular definition of alternative energy.”
Gunkel, Darrin (journalist). Alternative Energy Sources. 2006, p. 72.
“But the unfortunate fact is that fossil-fuel use creates greenhouse gases that many scientists believecause global warming. To address the problem, many experts argue that nations should transition toclean, renewable energy. Indeed, many consider alternative energy synonymous with clean energy.”
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Alternative Energy, 2007. retrieved June 24,2008 http://www.professionalpractice.asme.org/
“In the broadest sense, alternative energy is defined as any technology that that does notharm the environment or deplete the Earth’s natural resources. It reduces or eliminates theenvironmental impact of primary energy production, consumption, and generation. It's alsosometimes called the "clean energy industry". For the most part, when people speak of clean energy, they mean solar energy, geothermal or wind power, and biofuels.”
Boxer, Barbara (Senator from California). Senators’ Perspectives on Global Warming SenateHearing. January 30, 2007. p. 78.
“Senator, I also thank you for making the distinction between alternative fuels and renewable fuels because when the Present talks about alternatives, we don’t know that they are clean. We don’tknow that they will necessarily help us with the greenhouse gas emissions. So there are lots of things we have to be wary of.”
Schlinger, Neil (journalist). Alternative Energy. 2006 p. 84.
As of early 2006, the closest thing to an alternative-energy ‘revolution” is what is happening inwind power: large windmills have been the cheapest, most rapidly-growing source of newelectricity worldwide since the early 2000’s.”
Schlinger, Neil (journalist). Alternative Energy. 2006 p. 324.
“As fossil fuels become increasingly more expensive and eventually are depleted, alternativeenergy, including wind, solar, tidal, and wave power generated locally, may contribute to a sense of  people belonging to communities rather than to large anonymous societies. Decsions about power supplies and distribution would be made close to home in response to local needs.”
Clinton, Hillary (US Senator from NY). Senators’ Perspectives on Global Warming SenateHearing. January 30, 2007. p. 46.
“Energy efficiency is an enormous and underutilized energy resource. It’s the fastest, cheapest, andcleanest solution, and we ought to be doing more. California has done a particularly good job onefficiency, holding electricity use flat for the last 30 years and the economy has boomed.”

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