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AP Human Geography Mid-Term Review

AP Human Geography Mid-Term Review



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Published by Helie
A typed-up version of what Mr. Sutton told us in class.
A typed-up version of what Mr. Sutton told us in class.

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Published by: Helie on Dec 16, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SUTTON) EXAM REVIEWJulie’s Study Guideshttp://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/
Map distortion and projection
A map cannot be a perfect three-dimensional representation of the Earth
A distortion will occur in either distance or space on the map2.
Population densities
Agricultural density: the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amountof land suitable for agriculture (arable land)
Arithmetic density (or population density): the total number of peopledivided by the total land area
Physiological density: the number of people per unit of area of arable land(land suitable for agriculture)3.
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on population demographics
Urbanization occurred for several reasons:
People came to urban areas in search of factory-type jobs
People left the rural areas because technological advancementsmeant that there were fewer jobs in agriculture4.
Population growth concepts
Nations in Europe, especially northern and western Europe, are generallybetter off economically than areas such as sub-Saharan Africa. If given a listof countries, one should be able to decide which country is most likely tohave a high birth rate, low death rate, etc.5.
Demographic transition theory
Stage One: High birth rate, high death rate: low population growth
Stage Two: High birth rate, lower death rate: population explosion
Stage Three: Lower birth rate, lower death rate: slow to moderate growth
Stage Four: Low birth rate, similar death rate as stage three: low to nowgrowth
Stage Five: similar birth rate as stage four, higher death rate: negativegrowth6.
Friction of distance
The farther away something is, the smaller the chance that something (anidea, a group of people, etc.) has spread there7.
Different kinds of hearths include cultural, political, agricultural, religious,social, and linguistic8.
U.S. population diffusion
Over time, the population of the United States has moved westward andsouthward
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SUTTON) EXAM REVIEWJulie’s Study Guideshttp://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/
Latitude and longitude
Latitude lines are parallels: they encompass the Earth (the equator is one)
Longitude lines are meridians: they connect the two poles (the primemeridian is one)10.
Malthusian theory
As population increases, food and resources will be too little to sustain thepopulation and the population will slowly die
For many reasons, this prediction has not come true11.
Global population growth futures
Asian countries have exploding populations, whereas Europe and otherMDCs have populations decreasing at a rapid rate12.
Dependency ratio
The number of producers divided by the number of dependents
Dependents: people ages 1-15 and 65+13.
Push and pull factors
Push factors are from the originating country; they
the emigrantaway
Pull factors are from the destination country; they
the immigrantcloser14.
Crude death rate (CDR), crude birth rate (CBR), infant mortality rate (IMR) andtotal fertility rate (TFR)
These are all important indicators of the condition of a society15.
Map Scale
The larger the area, the smaller the scale. In a small scale, more area can beshown
The smaller the area, the larger the scale. In a large scale, greater detail canbe depicted16.
Spatial diffusion barriers
There is a large variety of barriers of diffusion. They affect not only peoplebut also ideas (e.g
an oppressive government that prevents free speech)17.
Immigration and emigration
is when people enter a country
is when people leave a country
Net emigration/immigration 
is when either emigration or immigrationtotals more than the other (
e.g. net immigration 
is when more people areemigrating than immigrating)18.
Brain drain

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