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Propeller Design Calculation

# Propeller Design Calculation

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A reference for designing a propeller, including formulae.
A reference for designing a propeller, including formulae.

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08/12/2013

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Propeller design calculation

Here we describe the steps in a simple propeller design calculation, using lifting line theory. A table
with an example is given afterwards. This corresponds to chapter 5.1 in Minsaas \u201cPropeller
Theory\u201d, but be aware that the example in chapter 5.1 have several numerical errors, and the
different lines in the example table don\u2019t necessarily come in order of calculation.

The propeller design calculation consists of three steps:
1. Calculation of thrust and torque
2. Check of risk of cavitation
3. Determination of camber and pitch distribution

Calculation of thrust and torque
1. Select propeller diameter and RPM. A Bp-\u03b4 diagram or experience might be used.
2. Select blade section thickness and camber distribution, using for instance tabulated data in

books such Abbott & von Doenhoff \u201cTheory of wing sections\u201d
3. Design radial chord length distributionc(r)
5. Find radial wake distributionw(r) from model tests or from empirical data
6. Design circulation distribution. The following generic type of distribution is frequently used:

\ue000
\ue001
sin
sin 2
m
k
xx a
xx
\ue003
\ue003
\ue007\ue004
\ue002
\ue003\ue000In this case, the design is about selecting values ofk,a, andm.
7. Calculate mean induced tangential velocityUT at all radii:
2
Tmean
U
r
\ue003\ue007
\ue004
8. Solve(1
)
2
2
T
A
A
T
V
w U
U
=
2 rn -U
U
\ue000\ue001
\ue000
to find mean axial induced velocityUA at all radii
9. Find mean hydrodynamic angle of attack\ue008i at all radii:t an
Tmean
i
Amean
U
U
\ue000\ue000
10. Find correction factors for finite number of blade to determine values ofUT andUA at the
a. Goldstein factors (used in the example below)
b. Induction factors
11. Calculate
,Tmean
T
i
U
=
U
(z x, )
\ue002
\ue001,
,Amean
A
i
U
=
U
(z x, )
\ue002
\ue001, andt an
T
i
A
U
U
\ue000\ue000
:
12. Calculate the resulting total velocity at each radius:
2
)
2
2
A
T
U
U
=( +
+ (2 rn -
)
V
V
2
\ue003
\ue001
13. Calculate the lift of each section:dL
V
\ue000
\ue000
\ue000
\ue001
14. Calculate the corresponding lift coefficient:
2
12
L
dL
C
V c
\ue000
\ue000
\ue000
15. Calculate the drag coefficient of each section:
2
1 2
D
F
t
C
C
c
\ue00b
\ue00e
\ue004
\ue001
\ue00c
\ue00a
\ue00d
\ue00f
16. Calculate the drag of each section:
2
12
D
dD
V C cdr
\ue000
\ue000
\ue000
17. Calculate total thrust of each section:d
2
d
sin
2T
i
U
T
rn
r dD
\ue004
\ue003
\ue001
\ue00b
\ue00e
\ue004 \ue007
\ue002
\ue002
\ue00c
\ue00a
\ue00d
\ue00f
18. Calculate torque of each section:d
d
cos
2A
A
i
U
Q
V
r r dD
\ue004
\ue001
\ue00b
\ue00e
\ue004\ue007 \ue001
\ue001
\ue00c
\ue00a
\ue00d
\ue00f
19. Integrate (sum up) to find total thrust and torque
20. Are the thrust according to required thrust?
a. No: Go to step 6 and adjust the circulation distribution.
Change of RPM or diameter, is also possible.
b. Yes: Proceed to cavitation check
Example calculation
A spreadsheet containing the formulas and numbers behind this calculation is available on the
subject web pages
Main input data:
Vs
18 knots
T
1080 kN
RPM
150
n=
2.5 Hz
D
6 m
xboss
0.2
rboss
0.6 m
z
Water Density
1025 kg/m3
Kin.viscosity
1.19E-06 m2/s
Calculation of thrust and torque:
x=r/R
0.204
0.284
0.364
0.444
0.524
0.604
0.684
0.764
0.844
0.924
r
0.612
0.852
1.092
1.332
1.572
1.812
2.052
2.292
2.532
2.772
xx
0.005
0.105
0.205
0.305
0.405
0.505
0.605
0.705
0.805
0.905
w
0.149
0.137
0.129
0.123
0.118
0.113
0.110
0.107
0.104
0.102
t
0.219
0.198
0.178
0.158
0.138
0.118
0.097
0.077
0.057
0.037
c
1.287
1.488
1.636
1.738
1.795
1.804
1.757
1.642
1.435
1.07
\u0393
3.47
11.72
15.21
17.58
19.17
20.02
20.06
19.14
17.03
13.15
VA
7.882
7.992
8.068
8.126
8.172
8.210
8.242
8.270
8.294
8.316
UTmean
0.903
2.188
2.217
2.100
1.941
1.759
1.556
1.329
1.070
0.755
UAmean
0.988
2.855
3.604
4.101
4.432
4.613
4.635
4.471
4.067
3.274
\u03b2i
42.435
37.469
31.597
27.116
23.648
20.869
18.556
16.555
14.746
12.983
\u03a7(x,z,\u03b2i)
1
1
1
0.997
0.993
0.984
0.964
0.924
0.841
0.66
UT
0.903
2.188
2.217
2.106
1.955
1.787
1.614
1.438
1.273
1.144
UA
0.988
2.855
3.604
4.114
4.464
4.688
4.808
4.838
4.836
4.960
\u03b2i
42.44
37.47
31.60
27.13
23.69
20.95
18.71
16.85
15.31
14.10
V\u221e [m/s]
12.414
15.483
18.837
22.327
25.897
29.520
33.180
36.867
40.576
44.306
Circulation distribution
parameters:k=20a=0.1m=0.4
Lift [N/m]
44191 185934 293683 402246 508889 605893 682192 723201 708294 596990
CL
0.109
0.254
0.247
0.226
0.206
0.188
0.172
0.158
0.146
0.139
Rn
1.35E+07 1.94E+07 2.60E+07 3.27E+07 3.92E+07 4.49E+07 4.91E+07 5.10E+07 4.90E+07 3.99E+07
CF
2.85E-03 2.68E-03 2.56E-03 2.47E-03 2.40E-03 2.35E-03 2.32E-03 2.30E-03 2.32E-03 2.39E-03
CD
7.64E-03 6.79E-03 6.23E-03 5.83E-03 5.53E-03 5.31E-03 5.14E-03 5.04E-03 5.00E-03 5.11E-03
dr
0.252
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.228
dD [N]
783
1192
1779
2485
3277
4107
4894
5530
5812
5018
dTD [N]
528
725
932
1133
1316
1468
1570
1603
1534
1223
dQD[Nm]
354
806
1655
2946
4718
6950
9512
12131
14194
13491
dT [N]
7691
34692
59102
84781 110528 134335 153500 164510 162426 130789
dQ [Nm]
4952
23935
41983
61591
81846 101151 117304 127468 127823 105425
Resulting performance:
Thrust
1042.4 kN
Torque
793.5 kNm
Power
12464 kW
Vs
18 knots
RPM
150
KT
0.126
KQ
0.0159
JA
0.544
\u03b7
0.682
Cavitation check

To check for cavitation, we need to estimate the local velocity at each blade section (radius). To do
so, we need to select thickness and velocity distributions. Mostly, standard profiles for which
properties are known are selected. For the example, we have chosen NACA a08 camber distribution

and NACA 16 thickness distribution. Other data we need are:
Draugt to propeller shaft: 7 m
Water vapour pressure:pv=1500 Pa
Atmospheric pressurepa=101325 Pa
Calculation procedure:

1. Calculate cavitation number:
2
12
(
)
a
v
p
p
gh r
V\ue000
\ue001
\ue000
\ue000
\ue001
\ue000
\ue001
\ue002
2. Calculate velocity due to thickness:
0.12
1
1
1
0.12
v
v
t c
V
V
\ue004
\ue007
\ue004
\ue007 \ue004\ue007
\ue000 \ue002
\ue001
\ue000
\ue005
\ue003
\ue005
\ue003 \ue005\ue003
\ue006
\ue008 \ue006\ue008
\ue006
\ue008
, where value for
0.12
v
V
\ue001 \ue004
\ue002 \ue000
\ue003 \ue005
is taken from the table in Appendix I in Abbott & Doenhoff.
3. Calculate velocity due to camber:
1
L
L
C
v
v
C
V
V
\ue000
\ue006
\ue006
\ue00b \ue00e
\ue004 \ue009\ue00c \ue00a
\ue00d \ue00f
where the value for
1
L
C
v
V
\ue000
\ue006
\ue00b \ue00e
\ue00c \ue00a
\ue00d \ue00f
is taken
from the table in Appendix II in Abbott & Doenhoff.
4. Calculate total max velocity at the suction side of each section:
1
x
v
v
V V
V
V
\ue000\ue004
\ue002 \ue007
\ue004
\ue007
\ue001
\ue000 \ue000
\ue005
\ue003
\ue005
\ue003
\ue006
\ue008
\ue006
\ue008