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Table Of Contents

1.1 Background
1.2 Problem statement
1.3 Aim of the study
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 References
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Different models of fixed-bed gasification
2.3 Reaction rates
2.3.1 Drying
2.3.2 Pyrolysis
2.3.3 Heterogeneous gas-char reactions
2.3.4 Homogeneous gas-phase reactions
2.4.1 Heat transfer
2.4.2 Mass transfer
2.4.3 Effective thermal conductivities in packed beds
2.4.4 Heat loss through the reactor wall
2.5 Tar in producer gas
2.5.1 Tar definition
2.5.2 Tar quantities as a function of gasifier type
2.5.3 Tar removal methods
2.5.4 Tar removal methods outside the gasifier (Secondary methods)
2.5.5 Tar removal methods inside the gasifier (Primary methods)
2.6 Concluding remarks
2.6.1 Theoretical modelling
2.6.2 Tar reduction
2.7 References
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Reaction rates
3.2.1 Drying
3.2.2 Pyrolysis
3.2.3 Heterogeneous char combustion and gasification
3.2.4 Homogeneous gas reactions
3.3 Gas-particle interchange
3.3.1 Heat and mass transfer coefficients
3.3.2 Effective thermal conductivity
3.4 Bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient
3.5 Thermophysical and transport properties of solid and gas mixture
3.5.1 Solid phase
3.5.2 Gas mixture
3.6 Conservation of mass
3.6.1 Solid phase component
3.6.2 Gas phase species
3.7 Conservation of energy
3.8 The boundary and initial conditions
3.9 Numerical methods
3.9.1 Method of discretization
3.9.2 Source-term linearization
3.9.3 Underrelaxation
3.9.4 Model discretization
3.9.5 Adaptive grid method
3.9.6 Solution procedure
3.10 Conclusions
3.11 References
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Generalised model predictions
4.2.1 Transient behaviour of temperatures and gas compositions
4.2.2 Temperature profiles
4.2.3 Velocity profiles
4.2.4 Solid densities profiles
4.3 Parametric sensitivity analysis of the model
4.3.1 Airflow rate
4.3.2 Initial particle size
4.3.3 Initial moisture content
4.3.4 Solid-gas heat transfer coefficient
4.3.5 Mass transfer coefficient
4.3.6 Heat and mass exchange area
4.3.7 Kinetics of primary pyrolysis
4.3.8 Kinetics of secondary pyrolysis
4.3.9 Kinetic rate of oxidation of secondary tar
4.3.10 Effective thermal conductivity
4.3.11 Heat loss through reactor wall
4.4 Conclusions
4.5 References
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Experimental set-up
5.2.1 Experimental stratified downdraft gasifier
5.2.2 Thermal insulation
5.2.3 Flare and burner
5.2.4 Filter
5.2.5 Air blower
5.2.6 Suction blower
5.3 Measurement systems and instrumentation
5.3.1 Gas sampling train
5.4.1 Wood blocks
5.4.2 Red gum charcoal
5.5 Experimental procedure
5.6 Summary
5.7 References
Experimental results and model validation
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Experimental results
6.2.1 Material balance and elemental balance
6.2.2 Temperature
.2.3 Gas composition
6.2.4 Tar content
.2.5 Energy output
6.2.6 Cold gas efficiency
Comparison of model predictions and experimental results
6.3.1 Temperature profiles
6.3.2 Gas composition profiles
6.3.4 Fuel consumption
6.3.5 Air-fuel ratio
6.3.6 Gas production rate
6.4 Conclusions
6.5 References
Analysis for tar reduction in stratified downdraft gasifier
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Optimum length of reaction zones
7.3.1 Performance of the reactor when using wood fuel only
7.3.3 Two different concepts on two-stage gasification
7.3.4 Simulation on two-stage gasification
7.4 Conclusions
7.5 References
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Summary and conclusions for the theoretical study
8.3 Summary and conclusions for the experimental study
8.4 Summary and conclusions related specifically to tar reduction
8.5 Recommendations for further research works
8.6 Reference
Discretization of model partial differential equations
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San-PhD

San-PhD

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Published by: fabioalfaia8085 on Apr 18, 2012
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