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Boiler Purge & Burner Management System

Boiler Purge & Burner Management System

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Published by S V NAGESH
Boiler Purge and Burner Management Systems for CFBC and PC fired Boilers
Boiler Purge and Burner Management Systems for CFBC and PC fired Boilers

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Published by: S V NAGESH on Apr 18, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Boiler Protection System and Burner Management System
The Boiler Protection System in combination with the Burner Management Systemprotects the boiler (including furnace explosion and implosion) from anunforeseen process fault or an incorrect action at the Distributed ControlSystem. The BPS / BMS in combination ensures all the necessary interlocksfor a safe start up and shut down of burner equipment. This narrativecontains provisions required for compliance with the NFPA 8501 Standard forSingle Burner Operation.The Burner Management System is designed to ensure a safe, orderly operatingsequence in the start up and shut down of fuel firing equipment and toreduce possible errors by following the operating procedure.In some phases of operation, the BMS shall provide permissive interlocks only toinsure safe start-up of equipment. Once the equipment is in service, theoperator must follow acceptable safe operating practices.It is essential that all parts of the BMS are in good working order and in servicewhenever the burner is in service if the system is to provide the protectionfor which it is designed. Regular maintenance and inspection of the systemand its associated hardware is essential for its continued safe operation.
Furnace purge
The purge system assures that the boiler furnace, theassociated air and flue gas paths, machineries like FD, ID and APH andequipments containing sources of ignition energy like ESP are purged with airto remove any explosive mixture before ignition. The BPS during the purgeverifies that the air and flue gas paths are open, fuel shut off valves areclosed and no flame is detected.
Master fuel trip :
While monitoring the fuel system and the furnace operatingcondition, a fault is detected, the BPS shall trip the MFT valve and individualburners shut off valves, main and ignitor shut off valves, de energise sparksand other ignition sources. When a MFT is caused by a loss of FD Fan and IDFan trip signal, all the air and flue gas passages of the boiler should beopened to fully opened condition to provide as much Natural draft aspossible. This condition shall be maintained for a 15 minute period. At theend of this period, fans shall be started to perform a post firing purge.
Flame sensors:
Each ignitor and burner is provided with proper flame sensor(fail safe trip) to continuously monitor the flame presence at any boilercondition. Each ignitor is equipped with IFM flame proving system usingflame ionisation principle.
BMS Functions
The BMS shall be designed to perform the following functionsPrevent firing unless a satisfactory
furnace purge
has first been completedProhibit start up of the equipment unless certain permissive interlocks have firstbeen completedMonitor and Control the correct component sequence during start up and shutdown of the equipmentConditionally allow the continued operation of the equipment only while certainsafety interlocks remaining satisfiedProvide component condition feed back to the operator and, if so equipped, to theplant control system and or data loggersProvide automatic supervision when the equipment is in service and providemeans to make a
Master Fuel trip
(MFT) should certain unacceptable firingconditions occurExecute a MFT up on certain adverse unit operating conditions 
National Fire Protection Association
As per NFPA 8501, a common cause of furnace explosions is
“Fuel leakage intoan idle furnace and the ignition of the accumulations by a spark or other  source of ignition.” 
In order to initiate and complete a satisfactory furnace purge, the operator mustverify that all of the following conditions are satisfied.All system power supplies onA minimum of 30% of full load air flow is establishedAll of the auxiliary air dampers modulating is established.Ignitor header fuel trip valve is proven closedNo natural draft and waiting time for purge requirement are presentOil header (MFT) trip valves are proven closedAll flame scanners “No flame” The drum level is adequate between minimum and maximum of the dangerouscondition.No Boiler trip command is presentInstrument air header pressure within operating rangeA “No master Fuel trip condition” is establishedFlame scanners cooling air not very lowOil header pressure not very lowFurnace pressure is between minimum and maximumAtomising steam/air pressure not very low
As each of the above conditions is reached, their respective indicator lights shallilluminate as “PURGE PERMISSIVES” on the operator control console.Once all of the above conditions are satisfied, the “PURGE AVAILABLE” light shallilluminate indicating that the START PURGE switch is enabled by the systemlogic. Activating the START PURGE control, when the “PURGE AVAILBLE” lightis illuminated, will begin a timed furnace purge cycle as indicated by a “PURGE IN PROGRESS” light illuminating.If the operator is starting the boiler from the cold condition or restarting after aMaster Fuel trip event, the procedure outlined in the following paragraphs isrequired. If the boiler is recycling or other wise starting from a warmcondition, the MFT circuit will reset automatically and the procedure will skipdirectly to the main flame light off sequence.Provided that the start up permissive remain satisfied, the system shall initiate aburner start up period timer set for no more than 10 minutes. If the operatordoes not initiate a start up within this time, the boiler control system will exitthe “PURGE COMPLETE” condition and the operator must begin again with thepre purge cycle. If the MFT has been reset, the boiler control system will tripthe MFT when leaving the “PURGE COMPLETE” condition.Upon completing a satisfactory purge, the operator must press the “RESET MFT” push button. The boiler control system will indicate that the MFT has beenreset with a steady on “MFT RESET” light. At this point, the boiler controlsystem is ready to allow the main flame start up sequence.
Main Flame Start-Up Sequence
The main flame start up sequence from the light- off the pilot flame through mainflame light – off is an automated sequence. Once the start up sequence hasbegun, only the “BOILER STOP” switch and the “EMERGENCY STOP” will interruptthe start up sequence. Any interruption of the start up sequence requires a postfire purge prior to attempting to start the boiler again. To initiate the start upsequence, the operator activates the “START BOILER” switch.Failure to meet any of these conditions shall prevent the burner light-off operation.To light the pilot flame, the pilot header vent valve shall be closed by the boilercontrol system. Then, sequentially, the ignitor transformer is energised, thepilot gas block valves are open and a 10 second pilot ignition timer startscounting down. When ignition timer cycle is completed, the ignitortransformer is de-energised and the pilot flame scanner is checked by thecontrol system. If the pilot flame is present, the main flame light-off sequence continues.

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