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Space-Vector PWM Inverter Feeding a Small IM

Space-Vector PWM Inverter Feeding a Small IM

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Proceedings
of
International
Conferenceon
Mechatronics
Kumamoto
Japan,8-10
May
2007
Space-Vector
PWM
Inverter
Feeding
a
Small
Induction
Motor
A.
Maamoun,
A.
M.
Soliman
Electronics
Research
Institute
El-Tahrir
Street,
Dokki,
Cairo
EGYPT
Postal
Code:
12622,
Fax:202-3351631
maamoun(ieri.sci.eg
Abstract
-
The
paper
presents
a
space-vector
pulse
widthmodulation
(SVPWM)
inverter
feeding
a
smallthree-phaseinduction
motor.
The
SVPWM
inverter
enables
to
feedthe
motor
with
a
higher
voltage
with
low
harmonic
distortions
than
the
conventional
sinusoidal
PWM
inverter.
The
voltage/frequency
control
method
is
used
for
open
loop
speed
control
ofinduction
motor
with
a
reasonable
degree
of
accuracy.
The
performance
ofthe
proposed
drive
system
is
simulated.
The
advantages
ofthe
proposed
drive
system
are
confirmed
by
thesimulation
results.
Vdc
A.
M.
Kheireldin
Faculty
ofEngineering
Ain
Shams
University
Cairo
EGYPT
I
INTRODUCTION
The
space-vector
pulse
widthmodulation
(SVPWMI)
technique
has
become
a
popular
pulse
width
modulation
technique
for
three-phase
voltage-source
inverters
in
thecontrol
of
AC
motors
[1-6].
The
SVPWMI
voltage-source
inverters
for
variable
voltage
variable
frequency
(VVVF)
drives
of
small
induction
motors
are
widelyused
both
in
industrial
and
household
applications
[7,8].
The
SVPWMI
inverter
is
used
to
offer
15%
increase
in
the
dc-link
voltage
utilization
andlow
output
harmonic
distortions
compared
with
the
conventional
sinusoidal
PWM
inverter.
The
control
strategy
of
the
inverter
is
the
voltage/frequency
control
method,which
is
based
on
the
space-
vector
modulation
technique.
The
paper
presents
a
SVPWM
inverter
feeding
a
small
three-
phase
induction
motor.
The
voltage/frequency
control
is
used
for
open
loop
speed
control
of
induction
motorwith
a
reasonable
degree
of
accuracy.
II
SPACE-VECTOR
MODULATION
TECHNIQUE
A
diagram
of
the
power
circuit
of
a
three-phase
voltage
source
inverter
(VSI)
is
shown
in
Fig.
1,
where
Va,
Vb,
and
Vc
are
theoutput
voltages
applied
to
thestar-connected
motor
windings,
and
where
Vdc
is
the
continuous
inverter
input
voltage.Qi
through
Q6
are
the
six
power
transistors
those
shape
the
output,
which
are
controlled
by
a,
a\,
b,
b\,
c,
and
c.
When
an
upper
transistor
is
switched
on
(when
a,
b,
or
c
is
1),
the
corresponding
lower
transistor
is
switched
off
(the
corresponding
a
,
b\,
or
c\
is
0).
There
are
eight
different
combinationsof
switching
states
as
follows
(000),(100),(110),(010),(011),(001),(101),
and
(111).
The
first
and
last
states
do
not
cause
a
current
to
flow
to
the
motor,
and
hence,
the
line
-
to
-
line
voltages
arezero.
The
other
six
states
can
produce
voltages
to
be
applied
to
the
motor
terminals.
motor
phhases
Figure
1
Three-phase
voltage
source
inverter
diagram
If
the
inverter
operation
starts
by
state
(100)
to
be
state
1,
it
is
possible
to
compute
the
voltage
space
vectors
for
all
inverter
states
which
are
shown
in
the
complex
space-
vector
plane
in
Fig.2.
The
six
active
voltage
space
vectors
are
ofequal
magnitude
and
mutuallyphase
displaced
by
600.
The
generalexpression
for
the
eight
voltage
vectors
is
[5]:
2Vdc
exp
Kj
k
)
wherek
=1,61>6
Vs,kw=
13
dc
i
31
0
where
k=
0,7
(1)
The
maximum
fundamental
phase
voltage
magnitude
that
may
be
produced
by
the
inverter
for
a
givendc
link
voltage
occurs
under
six-step
operation,
and
is
given
by:
2
VI,
six
-step
=-Vdc
(2)
On
the
other
hand,
the
maximum
achievable
fundamental
phase
voltage
magnitude
for
conventional
sinusoidal
modulation
is
[6]:
Isin
-pwm
2
(3)
From
equations
(2)
and
(3),
only
78.5%
of
the
inverter
capacity
is
used.
1-4244-1184-X/07/$25.00©2007
IEEE
TuAl
-C-3
1
 
01
S
\tor
Sector
1
V
Re
Sector
4
Sector
6
S
Ax
\
9
Sector
(001)
\
\A
1o
V
Figure
2
Voltage
space
vectors
for
a
three-phase
voltage
source
inverter
The
reference
voltage
space
vector
is
given
by:
Vs
=v
exp
(jm
t)
.S
n
i
v
v
X
g
x
M
2c
exp
j
c
m
t
)
Figure
3
Synthesis
of
desired
voltage
space
vector
using
realizable
voltage
vectors
not
produce
the
desiredvoltage
directly.
It
is
possible
to
decompose
it
into
two
vectors,
Vx
and
V
,
that
lie
on
the
two
activeinverter
vectors
on
either
side
of
the
reference
vector.
Therefore,
in
space-vector
notation:
(4)
The
modulation
index
M
s
defined
as
the
ratio
of
thedesired
peak
fundamental
phase
voltage
magnitude
to
half
the
dc
link
voltage
(maximum
achievable
fundamental
phase
voltage
magnitude
for
conventional
sinusoidal
PWM).
M
V1
(Vdc
I
2)
The
largest
possible
phase
voltage
magnitude
that
may
be
achieved
using
the
space-vector
modulation
strategy
corresponds
to
theradius
of
the
largest
circle
that
can
be
inscribed
within
the
hexagon
of
Fig.2.
Thus,
the
maximum
fundamental
phase
voltage
magnitude
that
may
beachieved
is:
Visvpwm
Xd
(6)
which
corresponds
to
a
maximum
modulation
index
Mmax
1.15.
From
equations
(2)
and
(6),
about
90.6%
ofthe
inverter
capacity
is
used.
This
represents
15%
increase
in
maximum
voltage
compared
with
the
conventional
sinusoidal
modulation.
The
desired
voltage
space
vector
at
any
particular
instant
may
be
written
in
Cartesian
co-ordinates
as:
Fs
=
Vsa
+
j(7)
Consider
the
example
depicted
in
Fig.3,
in
which
thedesired
voltage
is
found
to
lie
in
Sector
1.
Although,
the
inverter
can
Vs
=
vx
+
vy
(8)
where
the
vectors,
V.
and
V
,
are
obtained
by
operating
at
therelevant
inverter
states,
Vsl
and
Vs2,
for
suitable
portions
of
the
switching
period,
T,.
In
general,
when
(5)
operating
in
sector
m,
thereference
vector
may
be
decomposed
according
to
[5]:
(9)
Vs
Vs,m
+
Vs,m+l
Ts
Ts
where
Tm
and
Tm+i
are
the
times
spent
at
adjacent
activeinverter
states,
Vs,m
and
Vs,m+l
.
The
remainder
of
the
switching
cycle
is
subdivided
between
the
zero
states:
Tzero
=To+T7
=Ts
-Tm-Tm+i
(10)
Havingcomputed
the
active
and
zero
state
times
for
a
particular
modulation
cycle,
it
is
possible
to
produce
the
switching
signals,
PWMa,
PWMb,
and
PWMc
to
be
applied
to
the
inverter.
The
total
zero
time
is
most
often
divided
equally
between
the
two
zero
states.
It
is
possible
to
satisfy
the
above
restrictions
by
the
use
of
symmetrical
pulses
as
shown
in
Fig.
4.
The
cycle
begins
in
state
0,
(000)
,
witheach
inverter
pole
being
successively
toggled
until
state7,
(111),
is
obtained.
The
pattern
is
them
reversed
in
order
to
complete
the
modulation
cycle.
2
 
.T
tI
PWMA
Sec
(a)
V
200
Figure4
Inverter
switching
signalsfor
SVM
in
Sector
1
120
III
SVPWM
INVERTER
FEEDING
AN
INDUCTION
MOTOR
The
space-vector
PWM
technique
is
used
to
produce
the
switching
control
signals
to
be
applied
to
the
three-phase
inverter
circuit
given
in
Fig.
1.
The
SVPWM
inverter
is
used
to
offer
15%
increase
in
thee
dc
link
voltage
utilization
and
low
output
harmonic
distortions
compared
with
the
conventional
sinusoidal
PWM
inverter.
The
control
strategy
of
the
SVPWM
inverter
is
the
voltage/frequency
control
method,
which
based
on
the
space-vector
modulation
technique.
For
constant
torque
output,
the
air
gap
flux
in
the
motor
is
maintained
constant
by
operating
on
a
constant
voltage/frequency
supply.
However,
the
analysis
above
assumes
negligible
winding
resistance,
whereas,
in
practice,
at
low
frequencies
the
resistive
voltage
drop
becomes
significant
compared
with
the
induced
voltage.
This
voltage
drop
causesa
reduction
in
the
air
gap
flux
and
motor
torque.
In
order
to
maintain
the
low-speed
torque,
the
voltage/frequency
ratio
must
be
increased
at
low
frequencies.
The
voltage/frequency
control
method
is
used
for
open
loop
speed
control
of
induction
motor
with
a
reasonable
degree
of
accuracy.
I1
So000100
00
iS0
0020
0
00
Hz
(b)
Figure
5
Line
voltage
of
the
motor
at
fL=25
Hz
and
M=0.85
(a)
voltage
waveform
(b)
voltage
spectrum
(rms)
A
2
1
.2
092
093
034
095
096
(a)
0.97
0.380.99
Sec
A
IV
SIMULATIONRESULTS
The
SVPWM
inverter
which
feeding
a
small
three-phase
induction
motor
is
simulated
using
the
Matlab
software
package.
The
simulation
is
performed
under
the
following
conditions:
Vd,=
366V,
switching
frequency=
5kHz,
and
three-phase
induction
motor
(370W,380V,
0.94A,
50Hz,
2750
rpm,
R,=35Q,
R,=19Q,
LS=1.396H,Lr=1.396H,Lm=1.365H,J=0.003kg.m2,and
P=1).
Fig.
5
shows
the
motor
line
voltage
at
inverter
frequency
f0
=25
Hz
and
modulation
index
M
=0.85.
Also,
the
motor
current
at
different
loading
conditions
is
shown
in
Figures
6
and
7.
The
motor
current
has
lowharmonic
distortion.
lS000
20000
Hz
SOOO010
0
b00
(b)
Figure
6Current
of
the
motor
at
fL=25
Hz,
M=0.85,
and
T1=
0.7
Nm
(a)
current
waveform
(b)
current
spectrum
(rms)
3
1-
1-
1-
V
,,|,
l~~
~~~
~~
~~~
~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
..
II
a80
...
..............................................................
0
.2-

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