Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Assessing cereal quality parameters

Assessing cereal quality parameters

Ratings: (0)|Views: 491 |Likes:
Animal feed is the second largest consuming industry of cereals across the globe; their use is due primarily to the high starch concentration of these ingredients, which will usually account for more than 60 percent of the energy of the final feed. The three cereals most routinely used in animal nutrition are maize, wheat and sorghum. While the use of wheat and sorghum is specific to geographical regions (wheat being used in Europe, Canada and Australia and sorghum in Mexico, Australia and Central West Brazil), maize is used more globally.
Animal feed is the second largest consuming industry of cereals across the globe; their use is due primarily to the high starch concentration of these ingredients, which will usually account for more than 60 percent of the energy of the final feed. The three cereals most routinely used in animal nutrition are maize, wheat and sorghum. While the use of wheat and sorghum is specific to geographical regions (wheat being used in Europe, Canada and Australia and sorghum in Mexico, Australia and Central West Brazil), maize is used more globally.

More info:

Published by: Grain and Feed Milling Technology magazine on Apr 18, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/28/2012

pdf

text

original

 
NEXT PAGE
 
Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
Digital Re-print - March | April 2012
Assessing cereal quality parameters
 
A
It is clear that an ingredient with a highAME will have higher digestibility of the major nutrients, that is, starch, protein and fat, than asimilar ingredient with a low AME.Thus, it is not surprising that most of theequations for energy determination of ingredi-ents or diets for broilers and swine are basedon values of nutrient concentration (starch,protein, fat), multiplied by their respectivedigestibility coefficients (which are determinedas an average for the ingredient). These equa- tions work well when comparing differentingredients (for example, wheat versus maize) that have different nutrient composition andnutrient digestibility.However, such equations are less accuratewhen applied to individual ingredients as, inmost cases, nutrient content varies less thandigestibility between samples. In the case of wheat, although AME and starch digestibility are reported to be correlated, this does notaccount for all the variation found betweendifferent varieties, as a result of different grow-ing environment and year of production toname a few variables of interest.The ability to identify all parametersinvolved in determining the nutritive value of a cereal is an ultimate goal of any nutritionistas this will enable more accurate formula- tions and, as a result, more consistent animalperformance.Quality of cereals could be summarisedas the concentration of nutrients and physi-cochemical factors that may affect the digest-ibility of these nutrients.Nutrient concentration can be analysedby proximate analysis while physiochemical
&
 
The region of production affects the proxi-mate analysis of maize (see Table 1) and sor-ghum (see Table 2).Obviously, within these large regions thequality of cereal may also change.In addition to the region, the time of  the year of the harvest (summer or winter)also influences the nutritional value of maize.Fewer sorghum samples were collectedbut nevertheless it was possible to observeregional effects between samples harvested inAustralia, Mexico and South America.It is known that cereals vary considerably in composition with environment, growthregion, agronomic inputs and variety. Starchcan vary from around 550g/kg to 750g/kg incereals.A study in the USA in 1999 showed crudeprotein (CP) in maize across 16 states variedbetween 73.1 and 90.6g/kg and a separatestudy of 23 UK wheat samples showed vari-ability between 85 and 151g/kg.Environment is most likely to be the causeof variation in chemical composition; elevated temperatures during grain filling may decreasestarch content and increase protein. Within the starch, amylose to amylopectinratio may also be affected; across 15 countries, total starch in wheat varied between 65 and70 percent and the amylopectin content of  that starch varied between 73 and 83 percent.In broilers, ileal starch digestibility can beupwards of 90 percent Starch content (andprotein, which is correlated to starch) areclearly important and because anti-nutritionalfactors such as NSP detract from the overallquality of the cereal, it is important to haveaccurate knowledge of the proximate com-position.After harvest, cereal handling may vary considerably before being fed to animals.One of the most detrimental proceduresis drying, where moisture content is reducedin order to prevent germination and spoilageduring storage. Maize harvested at a highmoisture level needs more rigorous drying,which will change the characteristic of thegrain and the availability of nutrients.
&
 
V
G
*
V
G
)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->