Hourglass and Water Clock were both formed on the idea of a steady flow of asubstance and the level left in the vessel allows us to determine the time.Escapement is a gear, which converts vertical pressure into circular motionLongitude (meridians)
meet at the poles, prime meridian is the GMT lineLatitude (parallels)
equator is 0
, north is x degrees north, and south is x degreessouth.The International Meridian Conference, held in Washington, DC in 1884, selected theline running through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the "PrimeMeridian," or zero degrees longitude, which has since gained universal acceptance.Time Zones were created on the premise that everyone would get about 12 hours ofday and 12 hours of night (24 hours in a day was decided by consensus)
about 6 AMto 6 PM. Therefore to make some sort of uniformity throughout the world, the decisionwas made to divide the world into 24 time zones to correspond with the number of hoursin a day. Therefore the sun rises in the east and the earth essentially rotates through
the ‗sunrise‘ until it rises in the west (Tokyo vs. San fransisco, for example). There is
one exception to this rule:International Date Line is the point at which you turn back a day, approximatelythe other side of the earth to the Prime Meridian. If clock time becamecontinuously later as one moved east, then after traveling through 24 time zones,a person would arrive back where he or she started with a clock that was 24hours (or one day) later than it was at the start. Since it cannot be both Mondayand Tuesday in the same place at the same time, the date must be reset tocorrect for this error. When moving east to west (Russia to Alaska) to take awaya day, and add a day when travelling west to east.THE ATMOSPHERE-What is the atmosphere composed of?78% Nitrogen (innate gas, doesn't affect very much) 21% Oxygen, 1% TraceGases (includes Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, Methane, Nitrous Oxide)-How is the atmosphere heated?The Sun gives off short wave radiation, which hits the Earth that gives off longwave radiation that warms up the rest of the earth. This is evident when you look atmountains which are closer to the sun, yet are very cold. Things closer to the surfaceare the warmest.