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Map Guide

Map Guide

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Published by Jon Askonas
Courtesy of Denis Peskov
Courtesy of Denis Peskov

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Published by: Jon Askonas on Apr 19, 2012
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Introduction: The Earth
Revolutions and rotationEarth is approximately 91
95 million miles away from the sunPlane of the Elliptic
the imaginary flat surface on which the earth orbits.Earth spins on an axis that is tilted 66.5 degrees, but the tilt is constantFor the Northern Hemisphere: Summer Solstice is June 22, the date where theNorth Pole is closest to the sun and Winter Solstice is December 22, the datewhere the south pole is closest to the sunWhen the earth is closer to the sun the climate is warmer, and when it is furtheraway, it is colder.Solar radiation is made up of the direct EM waves (99% of energy)Due to the tilt, the day is longer in the north hemisphere in the summer and longer in thewinter and this is more prominent as the you go more and more north.At 22.5 degrees north + south are the tropics, north
cancer and south
Capricorn,(Tip: remember alphabetical order, cancer is before Capricorn)At 66.5 degrees north + south are the circles, north
arctic circle and south
 Antarctic circle and this area during the solstices are 24 hour sunModern scientific revolution started with astrophysicsTime = human observation of regular motionIn the middle of the solstices are equal days and nights (12 +12) these are calledth
e equinox‘s (autumnal and vernal
autumn and spring)Time was regularized after the trains were introduced, 1847 the railroads gottogether and decided to use GMT and time zones are approx 15
We determined the time through tracking the sun‘s position at
the solstices. Ourancestors observed the apparent changes in the position of the sun and drewfrom these observations some astute and for their time remarkably accurateconclusions i.e. by tracking the position the sun was in the sky (high or low) theywere able to determine the 4 divisions of the year. By 4000 BCE, the Egyptianshad calculated the length of the year to be equal to 365 days, and a couple ofmillennia later, their successors had sharpened the number to 365 1/4 days.The natural division of the day between sunlight and darkness was not good enough. Tomeasure smaller units of time required artificial inventions that would produce regularbrief movements, which could be used to "count" the passage from one "time" to thenext.
Hourglass and Water Clock were both formed on the idea of a steady flow of asubstance and the level left in the vessel allows us to determine the time.Escapement is a gear, which converts vertical pressure into circular motionLongitude (meridians)
meet at the poles, prime meridian is the GMT lineLatitude (parallels)
equator is 0
, north is x degrees north, and south is x degreessouth.The International Meridian Conference, held in Washington, DC in 1884, selected theline running through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the "PrimeMeridian," or zero degrees longitude, which has since gained universal acceptance.Time Zones were created on the premise that everyone would get about 12 hours ofday and 12 hours of night (24 hours in a day was decided by consensus)
about 6 AMto 6 PM. Therefore to make some sort of uniformity throughout the world, the decisionwas made to divide the world into 24 time zones to correspond with the number of hoursin a day. Therefore the sun rises in the east and the earth essentially rotates through
the ‗sunrise‘ until it rises in the west (Tokyo vs. San fransisco, for example). There is
one exception to this rule:International Date Line is the point at which you turn back a day, approximatelythe other side of the earth to the Prime Meridian. If clock time becamecontinuously later as one moved east, then after traveling through 24 time zones,a person would arrive back where he or she started with a clock that was 24hours (or one day) later than it was at the start. Since it cannot be both Mondayand Tuesday in the same place at the same time, the date must be reset tocorrect for this error. When moving east to west (Russia to Alaska) to take awaya day, and add a day when travelling west to east.THE ATMOSPHERE-What is the atmosphere composed of?78% Nitrogen (innate gas, doesn't affect very much) 21% Oxygen, 1% TraceGases (includes Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, Methane, Nitrous Oxide)-How is the atmosphere heated?The Sun gives off short wave radiation, which hits the Earth that gives off longwave radiation that warms up the rest of the earth. This is evident when you look atmountains which are closer to the sun, yet are very cold. Things closer to the surfaceare the warmest.
 -Why is the Earth heated unevenly?The earth is heated unevenly because not all places on the Earth are heatedevenly. If the area is far away from the sun (like the poles) then it is normally colder,unlike places that are closer to the sun (like the equator) that are warmer.-What are the characteristics of warm air? Cold air?Warm air absorbs moisture a lot more than cold air, and it is also very light. Coldair is heavier, more dense but does not hold as much air. When warm air gets colder, itreleases a lot of water as rain (condensation)-How does the Hadley cycle work?Sun rays hit the Earth. At that point, the air where the ray hits the Earth getswarmer. That air rises. Colder air replaces it. As the warm air rises and moves away, itcools, falls and replaces warm air elsewhere. This cycle continues in a North-Southmotion continuously.-What does high/low pressure mean?This slide demonstrates the effects of "air pressure" or the difference betweenwarm (light) and cold (heavy) air. The term "high pressure" means that air above thispoint is cold, or colder than the neighboring air, and cold air being heavy forces its wayearthward. Conversely, "low pressure" means that air above this point is warm, orwarmer than the neighboring air, and warm air being light rises. Cold, heavy air pressesdownward to form a center of high pressure, while warm, light air rises to form a centerof low pressure.-What happens to moisture in the context of the Hadley cycle?If the Sun heats up air, then the air gets warm, and it picks up moisture, and thenas it moves away from the earth surfaces as it rises then it releases the water as rain orsnow.-What impact does the Hadley cycle have on global precipitation patterns? Where doesit rain most? Least? Why? ( I essentially took this from one of the slides, it explained itreally well)Warm air absorbs moisture, and when warm air is cooled, the water vaporcondenses, or changes from the gas to the liquid phase. Thus, a column of light, warm

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