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Table Of Contents

1.1 Analytical problems
1.2Errors in quantitative analysis
Types of error 3
1.3Types of error
1.4Random and systematic errors in titrimetric analysis
Handling systematic errors 9
1.5Handling systematic errors
1.6Planning and design of experiments
Calculators and computers in statistical calculations 13
1.7Calculators and computers in statistical calculations
Bibliography
Exercises
2Statistics of repeated measurements
2.1Mean and standard deviation
2.2The distribution of repeated measurements
2.3Log-normal distribution
2.4Definition of a ‘sample’
2.5The sampling distribution of the mean
Confidence limits of the mean for large samples 27
2.6Confidence limits of the mean for large samples
2.7Confidence limits of the mean for small samples
Presentation of results 29
2.8Presentation of results
2.9Other uses of confidence limits
2.11Propagation of random errors
Propagation of systematic errors 35
2.12Propagation of systematic errors
3Significance tests
3.1Introduction
3.2Comparison of an experimental mean with a known value
Comparison of two experimental means 41
3.3Comparison of two experimental means
3.4Paired t-test
One-sided and two-sided tests 47
3.5One-sided and two-sided tests
3.6 F-test for the comparison of standard deviations
3.8Analysis of variance
Comparison of several means 55
3.9Comparison of several means
3.10The arithmetic of ANOVA calculations
The chi-squared test 61
3.11The chi-squared test
Testing for normality of distribution 63
3.12Testing for normality of distribution
3.13Conclusions from significance tests
Conclusions from significance tests 67
The quality of analytical measurements
4.1Introduction
4.2Sampling
4.3Separation and estimation of variances using ANOVA
Sampling strategy 77
4.4Sampling strategy
4.5Quality control methods – Introduction
Shewhart charts for mean values 79
4.6Shewhart charts for mean values
Shewhart charts for ranges 81
4.7Shewhart charts for ranges
Establishing the process capability 83
4.8Establishing the process capability
4.9Average run length: cusum charts
Zone control charts (J-charts) 89
4.10Zone control charts (J-charts)
4.11Proficiency testing schemes
Collaborative trials 93
4.12Collaborative trials
4.14Acceptance sampling
5Calibration methods: regression and correlation
5.1Introduction: instrumental analysis
5.2Calibration graphs in instrumental analysis
5.3The product–moment correlation coefficient
5.4The line of regression of yon x
Errors in the slope and intercept of the regression line115
5.5Errors in the slope and intercept of the regression line
5.6Calculation of a concentration and its random error
5.7Limits of detection
5.8The method of standard additions
5.9Use of regression lines for comparing analytical methods
Weighted regression lines131
5.10Weighted regression lines
Intersection of two straight lines135
5.11Intersection of two straight lines
5.12ANOVA and regression calculations
5.13Curvilinear regression methods – Introduction
5.14Curve fitting
Outliers in regression145
5.15Outliers in regression
6.2The median: initial data analysis
6.3The sign test
6.4The Wald–Wolfowitz runs test
The Wilcoxon signed rank test159
6.5The Wilcoxon signed rank test
6.6Simple tests for two independent samples
Non-parametric tests for more than two samples165
6.7Non-parametric tests for more than two samples
6.8Rank correlation
Non-parametric regression methods169
6.9Non-parametric regression methods
Robust methods – Introduction171
6.10Robust methods – Introduction
Robust estimates of location and spread173
6.11Robust estimates of location and spread
Robust regression methods175
6.12Robust regression methods
6.13 Re-sampling statistics
6.14Conclusions
7 Experimental design and optimization
7.2Randomization and blocking
7.3Two-way ANOVA
7.4Latin squares and other designs
7.6Factorial versus one-at-a-time design
Factorial design and optimization193
7.7Factorial design and optimization
Optimization: basic principles and univariate methods197
7.8Optimization: basic principles and univariate methods
7.9Optimization using the alternating variable search method
7.10The method of steepest ascent
Simplex optimization205
7.11 Simplex optimization
7.12 Simulated annealing
8 Multivariate analysis
8.2Initial analysis
Principal component analysis215
8.3Principal component analysis
8.4Cluster analysis
Discriminant analysis223
8.5Discriminant analysis
Solutions to exercises
Appendix 1: Commonly used statistical significance tests
Appendix 2: Statistical tables
Index
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21202653 Miller M James Statistics and Chemo Metrics for Analytical Chemistry 5th Ed

21202653 Miller M James Statistics and Chemo Metrics for Analytical Chemistry 5th Ed

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Published by: Caroline Jaegger on Apr 20, 2012
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