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Lingaiah - Machine Design Databook

Lingaiah - Machine Design Databook

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Published by wpiligatpuri
Well this is a design data book suitable for mechanical based design engineers
Well this is a design data book suitable for mechanical based design engineers

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Published by: wpiligatpuri on Dec 17, 2008
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01/12/2013

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CHAPTER
1
PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERINGMATERIALS
SYMBOLS
5
;
6
a
area of cross section, m
2
(in
2
)
Ã
original area of cross section of test specimen, mm
2
(in
2
)
A
 j 
area of smallest cross section of test specimen under load
 j 
, m
2
(in
2
)
A
 f 
minimum area of cross section of test specimen at fracture, m
2
(in
2
)
A
0
original area of cross section of test specimen, m
2
(in
2
)
A
r
percent reduction in area that occurs in standard testspecimenBhn Brinell hardness number
diameter of indentation, mmdiameter of test specimen at necking, m (in)
D
diameter of steel ball, mm
modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus, GPa[Mpsi (Mlb/in
2
)]
 f 
"
strain fringe (fri) value,
m
m/fri (
m
in/fri)
 f 
 
stress fringe value, kN/m fri (lbf/in fri)
load (also with subscripts), kN (lbf)
G
modulus of rigidity or torsional or shear modulus, GPa(Mpsi)
B
Brinell hardness number
 f 
final length of test specimen at fracture, mm (in)
 j 
gauge length of test specimen corresponding to load
 j 
, mm(in)
0
original gauge length of test specimen, mm (in)
Q
figure of merit, fri/m (fri/in)
R
B
Rockwell B hardness number
R
Rockwell C hardness number
 
Poisson’s ratio
 
normal stress, MPa (psi)
Ã
The units in parentheses are
US Customary units
[e.g., fps (foot-pounds-second)].
1.1
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: MACHINE DESIGN DATABOOK
 
 
b
transverse bending stress, MPa (psi)
 
c
compressive stress, MPa (psi)
 
s
strength, MPa (psi)
 
t
tensile stress, MPa (psi)
 
sf 
endurance limit, MPa (psi)
 
0
sf 
endurance limit of rotating beam specimen or R R Mooreendurance limit, MPa (psi)
 
0
sfa
endurance limit for reversed axial loading, MPa (psi)
 
0
sfb
endurance limit for reversed bending, MPa (psi)
 
sc
compressive strength, MPa (psi)
 
su
tensile strength, MPa (psi)
 
u
ultimate stress, MPa (psi)
 
uc
ultimate compressive stress, MPa (psi)
 
ut
ultimate tensile stress, MPt (psi)
 
 b
susu
ultimate strength, MPA (psi)
 
suc
ultimate compressive strength, MPa (psi)
 
sut
ultimate tensile strength, MPa (psi)
 
 y
yield stress, MPa (psi)
 
 yc
yield compressive stress, MPa (psi)
 
 yt
yield tensile stress, MPa (psi)
 
syc
yield compressive strength, MPa (psi)
 
syt
yield tensile strength, MPa (psi)
 
torsional (shear) stress, MPa (psi)
 
s
shear strength, MPa (psi)
 
u
ultimate shear stress, MPa (psi)
 
su
ultimate shear strength, MPa (psi)
 
 y
yield shear stress, MPa (psi)
 
sy
yield shear strength, MPa (psi)
 
0
sf 
torsional endurance limit, MPa (psi)
SUFFIXES
a
axial
b
bending
c
compressive
 f 
endurance
s
strength properties of material
t
tensile
u
ultimate
 y
yield
ABBREVIATIONS
AISI American Iron and Steel InstituteASA American Standards AssociationAMS Aerospace Materials SpecificationsASM American Society for MetalsASME American Society of Mechanical EngineersASTM American Society for Testing MaterialsBIS Bureau of Indian StandardsBSS British Standard SpecicationsDIN Deutsches Institut fu ¨r NormungISO International Standards Organization
1.2
CHAPTER ONE
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
 
SAE Society of Automotive EngineersUNS Unied Numbering systemNote:
 
and
 
with subscript
s
designates strength properties of material used in the design which will be used andobserved throughout this
Machine Design Data Handbook
. Other factors in performance or in special aspects areincluded from time to time in this chapter and, being applicable only in their immediate context, are not given atthis stage.For engineering stress-strain diagram for ductile steel,i.e., low carbon steelFor engineering stress-strain diagram for brittlematerial such as cast steel or cast ironThe nominal unit strain or engineering strainThe numerical value of strength of a materialRefer to Fig. 1-1Refer to Fig. 1-2
"
¼
 f 
À
0
0
¼
Á
0
¼
 f 
0
À
1
¼
A
0
À
A
 f 
A
0
ð
1
-
1
Þ
where
 f 
¼
final gauge length of tension testspecimen,
0
¼
original gauge length of tension testspecimen.
 
s
¼
A
ð
1
-
2
Þ
where subscript
s
stands for strength.
Particular Formula
Point
P
is the proportionalitylimit.
is the upper yield limit.
is the elastic limit.
0
is thelower yield point.
is theultimate tensile strength point.
R
is the fracture or rupturestrength point.
R
0
is the truefracture or rupture strengthpoint.
FIGURE 1-1
Stress-strain diagram for ductile material.
Ã
Subscript
s
stands for strength.PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
1.3
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS