Innate Immune System:
Mechanical- skin, mucous membranes, mucociliary escalator
Chemical- sweat, skin, saliva, tears, HCl (stomach acid), defensins, surfactant
Biological-normal flora competing with pathogens
Monocytes-become macrophages in the tissue
NK cells-killing virus infected and malignant cells
Eosinophils- killing parasites and helmiths (worms)
Phagocytosis and Intracellular Killing:
Characteristic, multilobular nucleus
Granules in cytoplasm- PRIMARY (contain lysozyme, cationic proteins, lysozyme, defensins,elastase and MPO). SECONDARY contain lysozyme, NADPH oxidase, lactoferrin.Phagocytes: Macrophages
Kidney shaped nucleus
Lysosomes contain lysozyme
Not many granulesPhagocyte Response to Infection:1.
THE “SOS” Signals
These molecules send an SOS signal to the phagocyte to alert them of an infection. These are:
N-formyl methionine containing peptides
Clotting system peptides
Phagocyte ResponseOnce the phagocyte has been alerted, the phagocyte responds by:
Vascular adherence: it sticks to the endothelial cells via adhesion molecules such as P selectinand E-selectin.
Diapedesis: phagocyte moves in between the endothelial cells
Chemotaxis: substances sent from the infected tissue (chemoattractants) attract the phagocyteinto the tissue.
Activation: the phagocyte becomes activated
Phagocytosis and killing