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THE ORBIT

THE ORBIT

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Published by Sawsan Z. Jwaied

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Published by: Sawsan Z. Jwaied on Apr 21, 2012
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05/20/2013

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THE ORBIT 
Pyramidal-shaped cavity with its base opening in front & its apex behind, and contains lacrimalapparatus & eyeball.
4 walls:
 
Roof is formed by frontal bone & lesser wing of sphenoid.
 
Floor is formed by the orbital plate maxilla & and palatine (posteriorly).
 
Lat. Wall is formed by the processes of the frontal and zygomatic bone & greater wing ofsphenoid.
 
Med. Wall is formed by frontal process of maxilla & lacrimal bone & orbital plate of theethmoid & body of sphenoid.
Openings of the orbit 
Orbital opening 
:
lies anteriorly. About one sixth of the eye is exposed; theremainder is protected by the walls of the orbit.
Optic canal 
:
1- located posteriorly2- in the lesser wing of sphenoid3- It communicates with the middle cranial fossa4-transmits optic nerve & the ophthalmic artery
Superior orbital fissure: 
1-
located posteriorly between the greater and lesser wings of sphenoid2-transmits 4 nerves & 1 vein
4nerves are: 1. ophthalmic by its 3 branches ( frontal, lacrimal, nasociliary)
 2. Trochlear nerve3. Oculomotor nerve (upper and lower divisions)4. Abducent nerve1 vein: superior ophthalmic vein
3-
it also communicates with the middle cranial fossa
 
Inferior orbital fissure
located posteriorly between the maxilla and greater wing of sphenoid.
transmits maxillary nerve with its zygomatic branch & inferior ophthalmic vein.
It communicates with the pterygopalatine fossa
Supraorbital notch 
:
Situated on sup. orbital margin
transmits supraorbital nerve and blood vessels
Infraorbital foramen 
 
Located in the orbital plate of the maxilla
extension of infra orbital groove and canal
it transmit the infraorbital nerve and blood vessels
Nasolacrimal duct: 
anteromedially in lacrimal bone
Opens in inferior Meatus of the nose
It transmits the nasolacrimal duct
Zygomaticotemporal & zygomaticofacial Foramina 
 
2 small openings on lat. wall
Transmit Zygomaticotemporal & zygomaticofacial nerves, they are branches of maxillaryof trigeminal.
Ant. & Post. Ethmoidal foramina: 
on medial wall
 
Transmit Ant. & Post. Ethmoidal arteries and nerves
 
 
Muscles of the Orbit 
Those we call them orbital muscles because they are in the orbital cavity, andother name is extraocular muscles because they are outside the eyeball.Actually we have
seven muscles:
 
 
Six of them are eyeball muscles means that are related to the eyeball.
 
The remaining one is eyelid muscle because it relates to the eyelid and it movesthe upper eyelid “allows you to elevate your upper lid”.It is called
levator palpebrae superioris.
And it originates form:lesser wing of sphenoid bone, and insert: in skin of superior eyelid.
Note:
we have two muscles related to the eye lid;
orbicularis oculi 
 which is a muscle of facial expression and this allows you to closeyour eyes. And the other muscle that allows you to open your eyesis the
levator palpebrae superioris.
 the lower eye lid is open by relaxation of orbicularis oculi andaction of gravity.
Eyeball muscles: they are 4 recti and 2 opliques.
Recti
: means that it goes in a straight direction. From the posterior wall of theorbit to the eyeball.1. The one that reaches the eye ball from superior is the
superior rectus
.2. And the one from inferior is called
inferior rectus
.3. The one medially
medial rectus
.4. The one that come from the lateral side of the eyeball is the
lateral rectus
.The two oblique the come from the posterior wall of the orbit then they turn inan oblique direction. The one above is
superior oblique
and the one below is
inferior oblique
.The superior oblique comes from the body of sphenoid bone all the way thenit gets inside a trochlea “pulley which is a fibrous ring that is attached to the

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