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01 Fundamental Concepts

01 Fundamental Concepts

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Chapter
1
Fundamental
Concepts
The last half of the twentieth century was a time in which tremendous advances in
science and
technology revolutionized
our
entire
way of
life.
Many
new
technolo-
gies
were invented and developed in this time period
from
basic laboratory researchto widespread commercial application. Communication technology, genetic engi-
neering,
personal computers, medical diagnostics and therapy,
bioengineering,
andmaterial sciences are just a few
areas
that
were greatly
affected.
Nuclear
science and engineering is another technology
that
has been transformed
in
less
than
fifty years
from
laboratory research into practical applications encoun-teredinalmostall
aspects
of ourmodern technological society. Nuclear power,
from
the first experimental reactor built in 1942, has become an important source
of
electrical power
in
many countries. Nuclear technology
is
widely used
in
medical
imaging,
diagnostics and therapy. Agriculture and many other industries make wideuse of radioisotopes and other radiation sources. Finally, nuclear applications are
found
in a
wide range
of
research endeavors such
as
archaeology, biology, physics,
chemistry,
cosmology and,
of
course, engineering.
The
discipline
of
nuclear science
and
engineering
is
concerned with
quantify-
ing
how various types of radiation interact with
matter
and how
these
interactions
affect
matter.
In
this book,
we
will
describe sources
of
radiation, radiation inter-actions,and theresultsofsuch interactions.As theword "nuclear" suggests,we
will
address phenomena at a microscopic level, involving individual atoms and theirconstituent nuclei and electrons. The radiation we are concerned with is generally
very
penetrating and arises
from
physical processes at the atomic level.
However,
before
we
begin
our
exploration
of the
atomic world,
it is
necessary
to
introduce some basic fundamental atomic concepts, properties, nomenclature andunits used
to
quantify
the
phenomena
we
will
encounter. Such
is the
purpose
of
this
introductory chapter.
1.1
Modern Units
With only a few exceptions, units used in nuclear science and engineering are those
defined
by the SI system of metric units.
This
system is known as the "InternationalSystem of Units" with the abbreviation SI taken
from
the French
"Le
SystemeInternational
d'Unites."
In this system, there are
four
categories of units: (1)
base
units
of
which there
are
seven,
(2)
derived units which
are
combinations
of the
base
units,
(3)
supplementary units,
and (4)
temporary units which
are in
widespread
Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 
Table
1.1.
The SI system of units
arid
their
four
categories.
Base
SI units:
Physical quantity
length
masstime
electric
currentthermodynamic temperature
luminous
intensity
quantity
of
substance
Examples
of
Derived
SI
Physical quantity
force
work,energy,
quantity
of
heatpower
electric
charge
electric
potential
difference
electric
resistancemagnetic fluxmagnetic
flux
density
frequency
radioactive decay
rate
pressure
velocity
mass
density
area
volume
molarenergy
electric
charge density
Supplementary Units:
Physical quantityplane angle
solid
angle
Temporary Units:
Physical quantity
lengthvelocitylength
area
pressurepressure
arearadioactive
activityradiation exposureabsorbed radiation
dose
radiation dose equivalent
Unit
namemeter
kilogram
second
ampere
kelvin
candela
mole
units:
Unit
name
ricwton
joule
watt
coulomb
volt
ohm
weber
tesla
hertzbequerel
pascal
Unit
nameradiansteradian
Unit
name
nautical
mile
knot
angstromhectare
bar
standard
atmospherebarncurieroentgengray
sievertSymbol
mkg
s
A
K
cd
mol
Symbol
N
J
W
c
V
ft
Wb
T
Hz
Bq
Pa
Symbol
racl
sr
Symbol
A
habar
atm
b
CiR
GySvFormula
kg
m
s
N
m
J
s-
1
A
s
W
A'
1
V
A-
1
V
s
Wb
m"
2
s-
1
s-
1
N
m-'
2
in
s"
1
kg
m~^
o
m
in
3
J
mor
1
C
m-
3
Value
in SI
unit1852
m
1852/3600 rn
s~
[
0.1
nm
=
ICT
10
rn
1
hm
2
=
10
4
m
2
0.1 MPa
0.101325
MPa10~
24
cm
2
3.7
x
10
H)
Bq
2.58
x 10~
4
C
kg"
1
1 J kg-
1
Source:
NBS
Special Publication 330, National Bureau
of
Standards, Washington,
DC,
1977.
Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 
use
for
special applications. These units
are
shown
in
1.1.
To
accommodatevery small
and
large quantities,
the SI
units
and
their symbols
are
scaled
by
usingthe SI
prefixes
given in Table
1.2.
There
are
several units outside
the SI
which
are in
wide
use.
These include
the
time unitsday(d), hour(h) andminute
(min);
theliter(L or
I);
plane angle degree
(°),
minute
('),
and second
(");
and,
of great use in nuclear and atomic physics,
the
electron volt
(eV)
and the
atomic mass unit
(u).
Conversion factors
to
convertsome non-Si units
to
their
SI
equivalent
are
given
in
Table
1.3.
Finally
it
should
be
noted
that
correct
use of SI
units requires some "grammar"on how to properly combine
different
units and the
prefixes.
A summary of the SIgrammar
is
presented
in
1.4.
Table
1.2.
SI
prefixes.
Table
1.3.
Conversion factors.
Factor
10
24
10
21
10
18
10
15
10
12
10
9
10
6
10
3
10
2
10
1
lo-
1
io-
2
10~
3
10~
6
io-
9
10~
12
io-
15
10
-18
io-
21
io-
24
Prefix
yotta
zetta
exapetatera
gigamega
kilo
hectodeca
decicentimillimicronanopico
femto
attozepto
yocto
Symbol
Y
Z
E
P
T
GM
k
h
da
dcm
M
nP
f
a
z
y
Property
LengthAreaVolume
Mass
Force
Pressure
EnergyUnitin.
ft
mile
(int'l)
in
2
ft
2
acre
square
mile (int'l)hectare
oz
(U.S.
liquid)
in
3
gallon
(U.S.)
ft
3
oz
(avdp.)
Ib
ton
(short)
kgf
lb
f
ton
lbf/in
2
(psi)
lb
f
/ft
2
atm
(standard)in.
H
2
O
(@ 4 °C)in.
Hg (© 0 °C)
mm Hg (@ 0 °C)
bar
eV
cal
Btu
kWhMWd
SI
equivalent
2.54
x
1CT
2
m
a
3.048
x
10~
1
m
a
1.609344 X
10
3
m
a
6.4516
x10~
4
m
2a
9.290304
X
10~
2
m
2a
4.046873
X
10
3
m
2
2.589988
X
10
6
m
2
1 x
10
4
m
2
2.957353
X
10~
5
m
3
1.638706
X
10~
5
m
3
3.785412
X
10~
3
m
3
2.831685
x
10~
2
m
3
2.834952x
10~
2
kg4.535924
X
lO^
1
kg
9.071
847 x
10
2
kg
9.806650
N
a
4.448222
N
8.896444
X
10
3
N
6.894757
x
10
3
Pa
4.788026
x
10
1
Pa
1.013250
x
10
5
Pa
a
2.49082
x
10
2
Pa
3.38639x
10
3
Pa
1.33322 x
10
2
Pa
1 x10
5
Pa
a
1.60219
x
10~
19
J
4.184
J
a
1.054350 X
10
3
J
3.6
x
10
6
J
a
8.64
x
10
10
J
a
"Exact
converson factor.
Source:
Standards for Metric Practice,
ANSI/ASTME380-76, American National
Standards
Institute,
New
York,
1976.
Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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