C. Flow Control
Air flow, Steam flow, Water flow
Deaerator temperature, Steam drum temperature,Underbed boiler temperature, Turbine inlet steamtemperature, Flue gas temperature.V. AUTOMATIONDelegation of Human Control to technicalEquipment aimed to wards achieving.
Higher productivity, Superior quality of endproduct, Efficient usage of raw materials andenergy, Improved safety in working condition.
A. History of Control and Automation
PLCELECTRICAL CONTROLWITH LOGIC GATESWITH LOGIC GATESMANUAL CONTROL
In this, the Control and Automation are done byManual Operations.Drawbacks:
Human Errors subsequently affect quality of endproduct.
Hard Wired Logic Control
In this, Contractor and relays together with timersand counters were used in achieving desired levelof automation.
Bulky and complex wiring, Involves lot of rework to implement changes in control logic, thework can be started only when the takes is fullydefined and this leads to longer project time.
Electronics Control with Logic Gates
In this, Contactor and Relays together with timersand counters were replaced with logic gates andelectronic timers in the control circuits.
Reduced space requirements, energy saving, lessmaintenance and hence greater reliability.
The Major Drawbacks
Implementation of changes in the control logic aswell as reducing the project lead- time was notpossible.
Programmable Logic Controller
In this, instead of achieving desired control andautomation through physical wiring of controldevices, it is achieving through program say software.
Reduced Space, Energy saving, ModularReplacement, Easy trouble shooting, Error diagnosticsprogrammer, Economical, Greater life and reliability,The Compatibilities of PLC’S, Logic Control, PIDcontrol, Operator control, Signaling and listing,Coordination and communication.
How PLC works
Basics of a PLC function are continual scanning of aprogram. The scanning process involves three basicsteps.
Step 1: Testing input status
First the PLC checks each of its input with intentionto see which one has status on or off. In other words itchecks whether a switch or a sensor etc., is activatedor not. The information that the processor thus obtainsthrough this step is stored in memory in order to beused in the following steps.
Step 2: Programming execution
Here a PLC executes a program instruction byinstruction based on the program and based on thestatus of the input has obtained in the preceding step,and appropriate action is taken. The action might beactivation of certain outputs and the results can be putoff and stored in memory to be retrieved later in thefollowing steps.
Step 3: Checking and Correction of output status
Finally, a PLC checks up output signals and adjust ithas needed. Changes are performed based on theinput status that had been read during the first stepand based on the result of the program execution instep two – following execution of step three PLCreturns a beginning of the cycle and continuallyrepeats these steps .
Scanning time = Time for performing step 1+ Timefor performing step 2+ Time for performing step 3.
VI. ALLEN BRADLEY PLCProgrammable Logic Controller or PLC is anintelligent system of modules, which was introducedin the control, & instrumentation industry forreplacing relay based logic . Over a period of time,better I/O handling capabilities and moreprogramming elements have been added along withimprovement in communication.
Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2008 Vol IIIMECS 2008, 19-21 March, 2008, Hong KongISBN: 978-988-17012-1-3IMECS 2008