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Boiler Control Using SCADA and PLC

Boiler Control Using SCADA and PLC

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Published by: Amadi Ugochukwu Fidelis on Apr 21, 2012
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Control of Boiler Operation using PLC – SCADA
K. Gowri Shankar
 Abstract
––
This paper outlines the variousstages of operation involved in the conversion of amanually operated boiler towards a fullyautomated boiler. Over the years the demand forhigh quality, greater efficiency and automatedmachines has increased in this globalised world.The initial phase of the paper focuses on passingthe inputs to the boiler at a required temperature,so as to constantly maintain a particulartemperature in the boiler. The Air preheater andEconomizer helps in this process. And the papermainly focuses on level, pressure and flow controlat the various stages of the boiler plant. Thus thetemperature in the boiler is constantly monitoredand brought to a constant temperature as requiredby the power plant. The automation is furtherenhanced by constant monitoring using SCADAscreen which is connected to the PLC by means of communication cable. By means of tag values set tovarious variable in SCADA the entire process iscontrolled as required. At the automated powerplant, the boiler is controlled by VariableFrequency Drive (VFD) to put in action therequired processes to be carried out at the boiler.Thus the entire cycle is carried out as a paper andat various stages each phase is detailed out. Thispaper has proved to be very efficient practically asthe need for automation grows day by day.
 Index Terms––
Automation, PLC – SCADA,Boiler.
I. INTRODUCTIONOver the years the demand for high quality, greaterefficiency and automated machines has increased inthe industrial sector of power plants. Power plantsrequire continuous monitoring and inspection atfrequent intervals. There are possibilities of errors atmeasuring and various stages involved with humanworkers and also the lack of few features of microcontrollers. Thus this paper takes a sincereattempt to explain the advantages the companies willface by implementing automation into them.The boiler control which is the most important partof any power plant, and its automation is the preciseeffort of this paper.
K. Gowri Shankar is with the Department of Electronicsand Communication Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering and Technology, Pondicherry University, India(e-mail: gowri200@yahoo.com)
In order to automate a power plant and minimizehuman intervention, there is a need to develop a
SCADA (Supervisory Control and DataAcquisition)
system that monitors the plant and helpsreduce the errors caused by humans. While theSCADA is used to monitor the system,
PLC(Programmable Logic Controller)
is also used forthe internal storage of instruction for theimplementing function such as logic, sequencing,timing, counting and arithmetic to control throughdigital or analog input/ out put modules various typesof machines processes. Systems are used to monitorand control a plant or equipment in industries such astelecommunications, water and waste control, energy,oil and gas refining and transportation.II. DRAWBACK OF CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM
 
Conventional equipment systems are prone to errorsdue to the involvement of humans in the datacollection and processing using complicatedmathematical expressions. Thus what we require is asystem that collects raw data, processes it andpresents it in values which can be verified andcompared with the standard values.In the coding process of this implementation withmicro-controller, it requires a fast and efficientprocessing which on the other part depends on thelength and sub-routines of the coding process. Thus itprovides a real challenge with systems involvingIII. METHODSAll the values can be filled up by the introduction of the automation technique into the power plants. Theautomation technique involving the automatic controlof all the processes which includes the monitoring andinspection needs provides for a very efficient system.The automation process helps the company having thepower plant to reduce the amount of errors that occur ,reduction in the human resources, increasedefficiency, and most importantly very cost effective.IV. CRITICAL CONTROL PARAMETERS INBOILER
 A. Level Control
Steam Drum level, De-aerator level and hot welllevel
 B. Pressure Control
Force draft pressure, Induced draft pressure, Steamdrum pressure, Deaerator pressure, Turbine inletsteam pressure, balanced draft pressure
Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2008 Vol IIIMECS 2008, 19-21 March, 2008, Hong KongISBN: 978-988-17012-1-3IMECS 2008
 
C. Flow Control
Air flow, Steam flow, Water flow
 D.
Temperature Control
Deaerator temperature, Steam drum temperature,Underbed boiler temperature, Turbine inlet steamtemperature, Flue gas temperature.V. AUTOMATIONDelegation of Human Control to technicalEquipment aimed to wards achieving.
 Advantages
Higher productivity, Superior quality of endproduct, Efficient usage of raw materials andenergy, Improved safety in working condition.
 A. History of Control and Automation
 
PLCELECTRICAL CONTROLWITH LOGIC GATESWITH LOGIC GATESMANUAL CONTROL
 Manual Control
In this, the Control and Automation are done byManual Operations.Drawbacks:
 
Human Errors subsequently affect quality of endproduct.
 
Hard Wired Logic Control
 
In this, Contractor and relays together with timersand counters were used in achieving desired levelof automation.
 
Bulky and complex wiring, Involves lot of rework to implement changes in control logic, thework can be started only when the takes is fullydefined and this leads to longer project time.
 
 Electronics Control with Logic Gates
In this, Contactor and Relays together with timersand counters were replaced with logic gates andelectronic timers in the control circuits.
 Advantages
 
Reduced space requirements, energy saving, lessmaintenance and hence greater reliability.
 
The Major Drawbacks
 
Implementation of changes in the control logic aswell as reducing the project lead- time was notpossible.
 
Programmable Logic Controller 
In this, instead of achieving desired control andautomation through physical wiring of controldevices, it is achieving through program say software.
 
 Advantages
Reduced Space, Energy saving, ModularReplacement, Easy trouble shooting, Error diagnosticsprogrammer, Economical, Greater life and reliability,The Compatibilities of PLC’S, Logic Control, PIDcontrol, Operator control, Signaling and listing,Coordination and communication.
 B.
 How PLC works
 
Basics of a PLC function are continual scanning of aprogram. The scanning process involves three basicsteps.
 
Step 1: Testing input status
First the PLC checks each of its input with intentionto see which one has status on or off. In other words itchecks whether a switch or a sensor etc., is activatedor not. The information that the processor thus obtainsthrough this step is stored in memory in order to beused in the following steps.
Step 2: Programming execution
Here a PLC executes a program instruction byinstruction based on the program and based on thestatus of the input has obtained in the preceding step,and appropriate action is taken. The action might beactivation of certain outputs and the results can be putoff and stored in memory to be retrieved later in thefollowing steps.
Step 3: Checking and Correction of output status
Finally, a PLC checks up output signals and adjust ithas needed. Changes are performed based on theinput status that had been read during the first stepand based on the result of the program execution instep two – following execution of step three PLCreturns a beginning of the cycle and continuallyrepeats these steps .
 
Scanning time = Time for performing step 1+ Timefor performing step 2+ Time for performing step 3.
 
VI. ALLEN BRADLEY PLCProgrammable Logic Controller or PLC is anintelligent system of modules, which was introducedin the control, & instrumentation industry forreplacing relay based logic [4]. Over a period of time,better I/O handling capabilities and moreprogramming elements have been added along withimprovement in communication.
 
Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2008 Vol IIIMECS 2008, 19-21 March, 2008, Hong KongISBN: 978-988-17012-1-3IMECS 2008
 
PLC Working
At the beginning of each cycle the CPU brings in allthe field input signals from the input signals from themodule and store into internal memory as process of input signal. This internal memory of CPU is called asprocess input image (PII).User program (Application) will be available inCPU program memory. Once PII is read, CPU pointermoves in ladder program from left to right and fromtop to bottom. CPU takes status of input from PII andprocesses all the rungs in the user program. The resultof user program scan is stored in the internal memoryof CPU. This internal memory is called process outputimage or PIQ. At the end of the program run i.e., atthe end of scanning cycle, the CPU transfers thesignal states in the process image output to the outputmodule and further to the field control.I/O driver (SCADA) picks up PII and PIQ andtransfers the image to database and this image iscalled driver image. This driver image available inSCADA database is used for graphical view of process monitoring from operator station (OS) in thecentral control room.
 A. Features of Allen Bradley PLC 
Using Allen Bradley 1000PLC Micrologix1000PLC has 20 digital outputs. The relationship withbit address to input and output devices is shown in thefigure below.Fig. 1, I/O Pin Configuration of AB PLCThe left side of the screen shows that eh project treewhile the right side of the screen is the programmingarea. Either area can be increased in size, minimized,or closed by left clicking the mouse on the appropriatesymbol.
 
 B. Interfacing
RunStart
 
Fig. 2, Interfacing of PLC and SCADAPIQRead PIIExecute UserProram Ladder
Scan
C. Connecting to the PLC 
 
 
Open a SCADA application
 
Create a tag of type I/O discrete, select the typeas discrete
 
Select read only if you don’t want to force valuesto PLC. Selecting read and write allows to theSCADA to read and force values to the PLC.
 
Type an access name.
 
The access name can visualized as a gateway fora group of resources.
 
Most of PLC drivers communicate with SCADApackage using DDE, DDE requires threeparameters namely name of the DDE server,topic name and item name. In case of reading anumber of items from a particular PLC driverapplication name topic name are common, so thisapplication name that is name of the DDE serverand Topic name combine to form an access name.Access name is required to be defined only oncethen other items of driver can be accessed byusing the Access name and item name. Thesedetails will be provided by the driver vendor ordeveloper.
 
Click ok, the access name will be listed finallyclick done, then type the item name, click save tosave the I/O tags. Go to run time to communicatewith PLC.
Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2008 Vol IIIMECS 2008, 19-21 March, 2008, Hong KongISBN: 978-988-17012-1-3IMECS 2008

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