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Pak Affairs Notes

Pak Affairs Notes

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Published by Paras Sindhi

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Published by: Paras Sindhi on Apr 21, 2012
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Pakistan Affairs
 
A 100 marks paper divided into mainly two zones: Pre-Partition and Post-Partition
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Pak-Affairs Notes
 
Indo
-
Pakistani Wars
I
-
INTRODUCTION
Indo
-Pakistani Wars, three wars fought between India and Pakistan since the two nations gainedindependence from Britain in 1947. The first and second wars (1947-1949; 1965) were fought over the
territory of Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r, in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The status of theterritory remains a matter of dispute between India and Pakistan. The third war (1971) involved Indianmilitary intervention in a civil war in Pakistan. This brief and decisive intervention resulted in theindependence of Pakistan
’ 
s eastern province, East Pakistan, as the nation of Bangladesh.
II
-
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The roots of Indo-Pakistani discord can be traced to the process of British colonial withdrawal from theIndian subcontinent. In 1947 the British government decided to partition the British Indian Empire into theindependent states of India and Pakistan. This decision followed the failure of the two nationalist parties of British India, the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, to resolve their differences in negotiationspreceding independence. The Muslim League advocated the creation of a separate state called Pakistan toserve as the homeland for Muslims of South Asia. The Congress, on the other hand, officially supportedbuilding a single country based on secular (nonreligious) nationalism. That single country would have beenpredominantly Hindu, however, because Hindus greatly outnumbered Muslims in British India.These two competing ideologies of state-building collided over the status of Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r, which hadbeen one of 562 so-called princely states in the British Indian Empire. These states were nominally
 
independent as long as they recognized the paramountcy (authority) of the British crown. Under this colonialdoctrine, the maharajas (monarchs) of these states exercised all powers except those pertaining to defense,foreign affairs, and communications. With the end of colonial rule, the maharajas were informed by the lastBritish viceroy to India, Lord Louis Mountbatten, that they had to choose between joining either India orPakistan. Mountbatten ruled out the prospect of independence. Furthermore, he decreed that predominantlyMuslim princely states that bordered Pakistan would become part of that nation.
Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r therefore posed an interesting conundrum. It had a predominantly Muslim population, aHindu ruler, and its borders abutted both India and Pakistan. The Pakistani leadership laid claim to theprincely state on grounds that fellow Muslims in a neighboring state had to be incorporated into Pakistan toensure its completeness. India, on the other hand, was interested in incorporating the territory into theIndian Union to demonstrate that a predominantly Muslim state could thrive within the context of a secularIndia. However, the monarch of Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r, Maharaja Hari Singh, had hopes of maintaining hisstate
’ 
s independence and delayed accession to either India or Pakistan, even after British rule formally ended
in mid
-August 1947.
III
-
THE FIRST INDO
-
PAKISTANI WAR
A -Events Before the War
In October 1947 a rebellion broke out amid the Pashtun tribes in the western areas of Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r.
The Muslim Pashtuns had long resented the Hindu maharaja
’ 
s rule, and in the wake of the British departurethey moved to exploit the power vacuum and challenge the maharaja
’ 
s authority. Pakistani irregular forces,comprising members of the Pakistani army disguised as local tribesmen, entered the fray to support thePashtun rebels. Within a week the rebels and their allies attacked and seized the border town of Muzzafar
ā
b
ā
d and then moved toward Sr
 ī
nagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r.
Hari Singh, now in a state of panic for fear Sr
 ī
nagar would fall to the rebels, appealed to Indian primeminister Jawaharlal Nehru for military assistance. Nehru set two preconditions for the provision of assistance:first, the maharaja would have to accede Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r to India, and second, the accession wouldhave to receive the approval of Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah, leader of the secular Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r
National Conference, the largest political party in the state. In late October, satisfied these preconditionshad been met, Nehru accepted the maharaja
’ 
s Instrument of Accession that gave India powers of defense,
foreign affairs, and communications in Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r. Pakistan immediately disputed the validity of the
maharaja
’ 
s accession, claiming he had signed under duress.
B -Major Events During the War
On October 27 Indian troops were airlifted into Sr
 ī
nagar to stop the Pakistan-aided tribal advance. By thistime the rebel forces, calling themselves Azad Kashm
 ī
r (Free Kashm
 ī
r), had captured a third of the state
’ 
sterritory. Over the next several months the Indian army fought a number of pitched battles with the rebelforces. In the spring of 1948, Indian forces mounted a major offensive designed to regain much of the lostterritory. This Indian offensive led to the direct involvement of the regular (uniformed) Pakistani army. Thefighting escalated during the course of the year, but neither side made significant territorial gains.On the advice of Mountbatten, Nehru had referred the dispute to the United Nations Security Council inJanuary 1948. The council subsequently passed a series of resolutions seeking an end to the conflict. Theresolutions called upon Pakistan to end its aggression in Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r and enjoined India to hold aplebiscite (vote) to determine the wishes of the Kashm
 ī
ris on the final disposition of their state. Both sideseventually agreed to these terms, and the war ended on January 1, 1949, with the declaration of an UN-sponsored cease-fire. By then about 1,500 soldiers and rebels had died in battle.
C -Events After the War
Because the territorial dispute remained unresolved, Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r was partitioned along a line thatreflected troop deployments at the time of the cease-fire. The de facto border was known as the Cease-FireLine (CFL) until 1972, when it was renamed the Line of Control (LOC).Since the partition, about one-third of the former princely state has been under Pakistani control. This areaincludes a small autonomous region—known by Pakistanis as Azad Kashm
 ī
r and by Indians as Pakistani-occupied Kashm
 ī
r
—as well as a larger section directly administered by Pakistan, known as the NorthernAreas. The remaining two-thirds of the historic region, including the southern province of Jammu, has beenunder Indian control. This area is administered as Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r State. (In historical references, the
name of Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r, commonly shortened to Kashm
 ī
r, refers to the entire area of the former princelystate.) In 1954 the legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r State formally voted to join the state into the
Indian Union. In India
’ 
s view, the vote ratified the maharaja
’ 
s 1947 accession and made the state an integralpart of India.
 
After the war, the United Nations sought to reach an accord that would be acceptable to both parties andfinally resolve the status of the disputed territory. However, these efforts proved futile as neither India norPakistan appeared willing to make significant concessions.
IV
-
THE SECOND INDO
-
PAKISTANI WAR
In 1965 India and Pakistan went to war over Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r a second time. Pakistan, dissatisfied withboth multilateral and bilateral negotiations, again sought to wrest Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r from India through theuse of force. This effort failed as India held its ground, and the war ended in a stalemate after almost twomonths of armed conflict. Although the second war over the territory was shorter than the first, theincreased firepower of the two nations resulted in a more deadly war, with a total of about 6,800 battlecasualties.
A -Events Before the War
A number of factors precipitated the second conflict over Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r. In the wake of a border warbetween India and China in 1962, efforts by the United States and Britain to settle the territorial disputehad, like the UN mediation process, met with little success. Furthermore, India significantly expanded itsdefense spending after suffering losses in the border war against China. At a regional level, India had startedto integrate Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r State into the rest of the country, such as bringing it under the jurisdictionof the Indian Supreme Court. All of these factors—the failure of diplomatic efforts, the growth of India
’ 
s
military, and India
’ 
s efforts at integration—provoked Pakistani misgivings about the erosion of its claim to
Kashm
 ī
r.
When rioting broke out in Sr
 ī
nagar in December 1963 following the theft of a holy relic from the Hazratbalmosque, the Pakistani leadership construed the anti-Indian tone of the disturbances as a sign of support for
the merger of Kashm
 ī
r with Pakistan. Accordingly, Pakistani president Muhammad Ayub Khan and his foreignminister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, decided to try once again to wrest the territory from India.
B -Major Events During the War
Pakistani army personnel disguised as local Kashm
 ī
ris began to infiltrate into the Kashm
 ī
r Valley in early
August 1965. Once they entered the valley, the infiltrators intended to foment a rebellion among Kashm
 ī
ri
Muslims. The strategy, known as Operation Gibraltar, went awry from the very outset, however. The
Kashm
 ī
ris did not respond as expected; instead, they turned the infiltrators over to the local authorities.Accordingly, the Indian army moved to secure the border and on August 15 scored a major victory after aprolonged artillery barrage. Attacks and counterattacks followed in quick succession.On September 1 the Pakistanis opened a new front in the southern sector, catching Indian forcesunprepared. Indian forces responded with air strikes, leading to Pakistani retaliation. On September 5 thePakistanis made a significant thrust into Indian territory that threatened to cut off Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r Statefrom the rest of India. The following day Indian troops crossed the international border in the Pakistaniprovince of Punjab near its capital of Lahore. Faced with this threat to Lahore, the Pakistanis launched acounterattack at Khem Karan in the neighboring Indian state of Punjab. This attack, spearheaded by thePakistani First Armored Division, was anticipated by the Indian forces and failed, with Pakistani forcessuffering major losses.
C -Events After the War
By mid
-September the war had reached a stalemate, and the United Nations Security Council passed aresolution calling for a cease-fire. The Indian government accepted the cease-fire resolution on September21, as did the Pakistani government the following day. The two parties subsequently attended Soviet-hostedpeace talks in Toshkent (Tashkent), the capital of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (present-dayUzbekistan). On January 10 the two sides signed the Toshkent Agreement and reestablished the CFL as thede facto border in Jammu and Kashm
 ī
r.
V -
THE THIRD INDO
-
PAKISTANI WAR
Unlike the first and second Indo-Pakistani wars, the third war, fought in 1971, did not involve the status of 
Kashm
 ī
r. Instead, it began as a Pakistani civil war in which East Pakistan, the eastern province of Pakistan,sought to secede from the country. This conflict escalated into a 14-day war between India and Pakistanafter India
’ 
s military intervened to support the secession of East Pakistan. Although even shorter than theprevious wars, the third war resulted in 11,500 battle deaths—the highest of all three conflicts. It alsoresulted in a truncated Pakistan, as East Pakistan became the sovereign nation of Bangladesh.
A -Events Before the War
The 1947 partition of the British Indian empire had created a Pakistan comprised of two “wings”—WestPakistan (present-day Pakistan) and East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan; now Bangladesh)—that wereseparated by 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of Indian territory. In the wake of Pakistan
’ 
s first free and fair election in

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