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Wiki Grammar

Wiki Grammar

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Published by Paras Sindhi

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Published by: Paras Sindhi on Apr 21, 2012
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English in Use/Print version
<English in Use This page may need to bereviewedfor quality. 
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 orany later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copyof the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".If you have saved this file to your computer, click on a link in the contents to go to that section.Introduction 
Words 
Overview
·
Nouns and pronouns
·
Verbs
·
Adjectives and adverbs
·
Prepostions, conjunctions, and interjections
·
Verbals 
Sentences 
Overview
·
Basic components
·
Phrases
·
Clauses
·
Fragments and run-on sentences 
Usage 
Adjective and adverb usage
·
Pronoun usage
·
Subject-verb agreement
·
Verb usage 
Punctuation 
End marks
·
Commas
·
Apostrophes
·
Quotations
·
Other common punctuation marks
·
Less common typographical marks 
Other key topics 
Capitalization
·
Spelling
·
Writing and composition
·
Syntax
·
Figures of syntax
·
Recent grammar restructure attempts 
Appendices 
Glossary
·
External resources
·
About
·
GNU Free Documentation License 
Contents
 
(edit template)
 
General:
 Introduction 
Parts of speech:
 Articles-Nouns-Verbs-Gerunds and participles-Pronouns-Adjectives-Adverbs-Conjunctions-Prepositions- Interjections 
Other English topics:
 Orthography-Punctuation-Syntax- Figures of Syntax-Glossary  Welcome to the English language Wikibook on the English language!To learn about chapter format and whether this is the right book for you, continue reading this page. Most of this material is not dependant onother sections, so you can also use this book as a reference by clicking on any subject you would like to learn more about onthe contentspage. If you don't want to bother looking through chapters for a specific piece of information, clickhereto ask a question on any subject covered in this book. To learn more about this book and view a list of authors, see theAboutpage.Additionally, those knowledgeable about the English language are welcome and highly encouraged to contribute. See theAboutpage to learnmore about contributing and add your name to the authors listing.English has become one of the most popular languages in the world. Proper English skills are becoming a valuable asset in business around theworld. Do not put off learning English because of the great variety of word orders available (even for simple things). Have a go and keep trying.Practice.It is well worth remembering that English is not a fixed language - it is shifting like sand and so these "rules" are in the process of change andare often ignored or bent - much to the disdain of erudite scholars. This may be one reason why English can be tricky to learn.This book will function as:1.A guide to structure and grammar,2.A usage guide, and3.A manual of styleIt is divided into six units: Words and usage, Sentences, Punctuation, Other key topics, Appendices, and Topics in detail. The eventual goal isto be usable in English classrooms around the world. This book will not include English vocabulary and pronunciation (covered inEnglish as an
This is theprint versionofEnglish in Use
 You won't see this message or any elements not part of the book's content when you print orpreviewthis page.
ContentsIntroduction
WelcomeIntroduction to the English languagePurpose and structure - What will this book cover?
ReadEditView history
Log in / create account
BookDiscussion
NavigationMain Page Help Browse Cookbook Wikijunior Featured books Recent changes Donations CommunityReading room Community portal Bulletin Board Help out! Policies and guidelines Contact us ToolboxWhat links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page rating In other languagesDeutsch 
Français
 
Français
 Sister projectsWikipedia Wikiversity Wiktionary Wikiquote Wikisource Wikinews Commons Print/exportCreate a collectionDownload as PDFPrintable version
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/English_in_Use/Print_version Page 1 / 24
 
Additional Language). Advanced writing topics (covered inRhetoric and Composition 
(PDF)
) will also be excluded.This book is written for native English speakers and those who wish to learn the finer grammar and mechanics points of the language andimprove their writing and speech, including ESL speakers. It is meant to be both a structured textbook read chapter by chapter and a referencebook.English as an Additional LanguageandBusiness Englishpresent English in the manner of a traditional foreign language course.Rhetoric and Composition 
(PDF)
covers advanced writing techniques not covered in this book. SeeExternal resourcesfor other pages to read.All pages of this book should be about the same length and difficulty, in order to provide consistency and allow readers to plan ahead how muchthey want to read each session. Each chapter will try to not be dependent on previous chapter as much as possible. Each chapter should beaccompanied by exercises using {{English/Exercise}}. </nowiki> on the bottom of the page to include the template. Secondly, you areencouraged to comment on each chapter on its talk page. Don't understand something? Please say so so others don't experience the sameproblem! If you feel you understand the material on a page pretty well, write some exercises as practice. Be bold! </noinclude>Modern English has evolved out of old Anglo-Saxon, a language much like modern German. In theprocess, it has borrowed many Latin words, and completely changed its grammar.The story starts when the Romans left Britain, leaving the Celtic Britons in chaos. One Celtic king asked the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes tocome and fight for him, but they decided to take over England instead, since the Celts couldn't put up a decent fight.Soon, there were no Celts left in England, and hardly any trace of the Celtic languages. There are a few river names inherited from the Celts, orearlier, and maybe a dozen words, but no more. This complete obliteration of the Celts was unusually thorough for the times.A few generations later the English converted to Christianity. The new religion brought with it a flood of new words, borrowed from Latin andGreek; religious terms such as
Angel 
,
priest 
, and
nun 
, but also names of un-English things such
lion 
,
pepper 
, and
oyster 
.Around this time, the English began slurring the ends of words. This was the start of the process that created modern English grammar.After a few centuries of peace the Vikings invaded. They spoke Old Norse, a language related to English. After much fighting, they settled downin North East England, and introduced many Norse words into English, including the pronouns
them 
,
they 
, and
their 
.Just as the Viking invasions stopped, the French-speaking Normans invaded. Commoners continued speaking English, but for the next twocenturies the noblemen spoke French.A few French words trickled into English during the period, but the number stayed pretty low until the nobles stopped speaking French, in themid thirteenth century. This precipitated a large influx of words of French origin into the English language as an entire class migrated fromFrench to English. Many of the French words were Anglicized, but some of the spelling of the words remained roughly intact. It should be notedthat the Normans spoke an older version of French known as
Old French 
that may sometimes actually seem to be closer to English thancurrent French, because English took some words from Old French wholesale, such as
mansion 
. Around the same time the universities ofOxford and Cambridge were founded.During the Renaissance, the scholars of England added many more Greek and Latin words to the English language. As a result, much of thetechnical vocabulary in English consists of Greek or Latin words.Since then, English has also borrowed many words from the major European languages, such as French, as well as a few words from almostevery other language. It is still changing and developing.English in Use/Parts of Speech Overview 
Contents
 
(edit template)
 
General:
 Introduction 
Parts of speech:
 Articles-Nouns-Verbs-Gerunds and participles-Pronouns-Adjectives-Adverbs-Conjunctions-Prepositions- Interjections 
Other English topics:
 Orthography-Punctuation-Syntax- Figures of Syntax-Glossary 
This page is written in English, and therefore needs to be translated at a later date to other languages for it to become more useful.
 A
noun
, or
noun substantive
, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which functions asthe head of a noun phrase. The word "noun" derives from the Latin
nomen 
meaning"name", and a traditional definition of nouns is that they are only those expressions thatrefer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, or idea. They serve as thesubject or object of a verb and as the governed term of a preposition, and can co-occurwith articles and attributive adjectives.
Intended audience - Who is this book for?Chapter formatBrief language history
Wikipediahas related informationat
History of the English language 
 
A Wikibookian disputes thefactual accuracyof this page or section.
 You canhelp make it accurate. Please view therelevant discussion.
Unit I:
Words
Parts of Speech OverviewNouns
Examples
Janet
is the
name
of a
girl
.
Apple
is a
fruit
and a computer
company
.In the above sentence, "computer" is an adjectivebecause it is describing "company".
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/English_in_Use/Print_version Page 2 / 24
 
There are different groups of nouns:
Common nouns
"
chair 
",
Proper nouns
"
Fred 
",
Abstract nouns
"
love 
",
Collective nouns
"
gaggle 
",
Compound nouns
"
butterfly 
",
Verbal nouns
"
triumphing 
".Each of these different groups of nouns has different properties, each making them different in how we use them.Thus, nouns are names of objects, places, people and things. They are used with adjectives to describe something, and with verbs to show anaction.Concrete nouns are proper nouns and common nouns.
Proper nouns
are the names of people, places, groups or dates: as,
Adam 
,
Boston 
,
the Hudson 
,
the Romans 
,
the Azores 
,
the Alps 
. Theyalmost always have a capital letter as their first letter. Example:"
Timmy 
is not someone to be toyed with."No one likes to hear other people boast their talents
Common nouns
are the names of a sort, kind, or class, of beings or things: as,
beast 
,
bird 
,
fish 
,
insect 
,
creatures 
,
persons 
,
children 
. Theyoften refer to objects or things which we can see, touch and feel, like the word
chair 
. Example:"I sat at the
table 
."
Collective nouns
are the names of a groups of objects or many individuals together: as,
council 
,
meeting 
,
committee 
,
flock 
. Example:"They are a
group 
."
Abstract nouns
are the names of some particular qualities considered apart from its substance: as,
goodness 
,
hardness 
,
pride 
,
frailty 
. They areoften names of the things that we cannot touch or see, but are there all the same. Example:"I think I've fallen in
love 
!"
Verbal nouns
or
participial nouns
are the names of some actions, or states of being; and are formed from a verb, like a participle, butemployed as a noun: as,"The
triumphing 
of the wicked is short."
Job, XX, 5.A thing
sui generis
, (i.e., of its own peculiar kind,) is something which is distinguished, not as an individual of a species, but as a sort by itself,without plurality in either the noun or the sort of thing: as,
galvanism 
,
music 
,
geometry 
."The Ancient of days did sit."
Bible 
."Of the ancients."
Swift 
."For such impertinents."
Steele 
."He is an ignorant in it."
Id 
."In the luxuriance of an unbounded picturesque."
Jamieson 
."A source of the sublime;"
Burke 
."The vast immense of space:"
Murray 
."There is none his like."
Job, XLI, 33 
."A little more than a little, is by much too much."
Shakespeare 
."And gladly make much of that entertainment."
Sidney 
."A covetous man makes the most of what he has."
L'Estrange 
."It has done enough for me."
Pope 
."He had enough to do."
Bacon 
."All withers here; who most possess, are losers by their gain, stung by full proof, that bad at best, life's idle all is vain."
Young 
."Nor grudge I you the much the Grecians give, nor murmuring take the little I receive."
Dryden 
."A love of seeing the what and how of all about him."
Story's Life of Flaxman: Pioneer, Vol. i, p. 133.
Cleanliness
is next to
Godliness
.The
World Wide Web
has become the leastexpensive
way
to publish
information
.
Concrete nouns
Proper nounsCommon nouns
Individual nounsCollective nouns
Abstract nouns
AttributeVerbal nounsSui generis
Words and word groups used as nouns
Adjectives made nounsPronouns made nouns
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/English_in_Use/Print_version Page 3 / 24

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