HOGGAN : The Myth of the Six Million— 3 —
decisive phase. There were approximately 500,000 Jews in Germany when Hitlerbecame Chancellor in January, 1933.
2. Disabilities Imposed on the Jews by National Socialism
The first major directive against the Jews, after the one-day boycott of April 1,1933, was the law of April 7, 1933, which required the dismissal of Jews fromgovernment service and from positions in the universities. This law was not fullyimplemented in practice until 1939 :although. many functionaries and teachers wereretired on pensions before the end of 1933. Jews were still employed in German journalism and publishing as late as 1939, but they had been required by 1936 to sellall of their share of financial control over German newspapers, publishing houses, andthe film industry on the basis of an emergency press enactment by PresidentHindenburg under Article 48 of the Weimar constitution on March 1, 1933.Undoubtedly the most fundamental National Socialist legislation against the Jewswas enacted by the Reichstag at its meeting in Nuremberg on September 15, 1935.These famous Nuremberg Laws included the citizenship law and the law for theprotection of German blood and honor. Jews were carefully defined as persons withfour or three Jewish grandparents, or persons with two Jewish grandparents whopracticed the Jewish religion or were married to Jewish partners. This legislationdeprived the Jews of German citizenship and of the right to fly the German colors, itprohibited Jews from marrying German citizens, and it provided that sexual intercoursebetween Jews and German citizens was a criminal offense. Jews were not allowed toemploy female German servants of less than forty-five years of age. A supplementarylaw of July 6, 1938 permitted divorce solely on racial grounds.It should be noted that as late as 1938 the segregation of Jews was still limitedto prohibition of sexual relations, and to the exclusion of Jews from universityemployment, government work, Or from the ownership of the mass media of communication. The Jews were allowed to operate and to own businesses, to sharepublic facilities of recreation, culture, and transportation, to engage in professions suchas medicine and law, to accept ordinary employment, and to travel abroad. Indeed,many thousands of Jews were still living quietly and working in the German communitywhen the country was occupied by Allied troops in 1945.Although it was the National Socialist policy to encourage the Jews to leaveGermany, rather liberal arrangements were made to permit those Jews who migratedto take with them a sizeable portion of their assets. It was easier to transfer or takewith them the sums received from the properties sold than liquid assets. Billions of marks were transferred to Palestine; under the Havarah agreement there were norestrictions whatever.
3. Bruno Amann's Exposition of the Basis of the Anti-Jewish Policy of NationalSocialism
The official National Socialist attitude toward the German Jews from 1933 to theoutbreak of World War 11 was best summarized in Bruno Amann, Das Weltbild desJudentunis: Grundlagen des voelkischen Antisemitismus (A Picture of World Jewry: theFoundations of Popular Anti-Semitism, Vienna, 1939). Amann depicted the NationalSocialist revolution of 1933 as the beginning of a new age for Germany based on thedemocratic principle of the community of the entire people as opposed to the class