The spindle is located within and moved up or down by the quill. This is the Z-axismovement for plunge operations on the vertical mill. The quill is moved by the quill feedlever, and can be locked in place with the quill lock. Depth of plunge moves aremeasured with the electronic digital read out located on the front of the mill head.
Proficiency in milling operations involves more than simply cutting metal. Thereare two main categories of procedures when machining on a milling machine: the preliminary operations, and the machining operations.
The first, (and last), procedure in any machining operation. Withoutclean equipment and tools, the accuracy of the finished product diminishes quickly. Theaccuracy, durability, and longevity of the equipment and tools depend on being keptclean. In today’s high tolerances in engineering, cleanliness is critical.
- For most jobs performed on a milling machine, setting up the workpiece isthe most difficult, critical, and time consuming part of the job. The workpiece must notonly be securely clamped, but held in such a way so that very surface to be machined willaccurately align with other surfaces when finished. Several types of holding devices areused in mounting the workpiece o the milling machine. The most common used in theStudent Shop are the vice, table clamps, index chuck, and rotary table. The vice is probably the most widely used fixture. There are two configurations for the vise. The plain vise, which rests with the jaws parallel to the X-axis. The second style is with theswivel-base mounted under the vise allowing it to be rotated and set at a variety of angles. Large workpieces can be held directly on the table surface through a combinationof T-nuts, bolts, and clamps. An index chuck permits the rapid positioning of the work,usually indexing in 15° increments. The rotary table gives the mill its 4th axis with itscircular movement. Circles, partial curves, angularly spaced holes, curved slots, and O-ring grooves. This fixture is graduated in degrees and minutes of a degree.
- End mills are the most common cutter used on the vertical millingmachine. They are extremely versatile in that they can be used for surface cuts, slotting,and side (or profiling) cuts. End mills come in many types, each being suited for a particular application. End mills are fluted, much like drills, and the number of flutesdetermines what the end mill can do. Two fluted end mills are used for machiningaluminum, and are favored for plunge cuts. Four fluted end mills are used in machiningthe harder metals like steel. Generally, it is not a good idea to use a four fluted end millwhen machining aluminum or brass however, since the flutes can fill with material, andno longer cut. The other main characteristic of the end mill is the cutting end of the toolits self. Some end mills are bottom cutting, meaning they can be plunged into materialmuch like a drill, while some are not, and are only useful for cutting on the side. Becareful not to plunge an end mill that is not bottom cutting. Other types of end millsincludes the ball end mill, which has a radiused end used to produce a fillet, and corner radiusing end mills, used to round the edges of a workpiece.