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CARDS - 5.2 - Internal Resistance, Power and Combining Resistors

CARDS - 5.2 - Internal Resistance, Power and Combining Resistors

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Published by Simon
Electricity Revision cards
Electricity Revision cards

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Published by: Simon on Apr 23, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/23/2012

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22/04/20121
1
Internal Resistance
All
 
cells
 
are
 
made
 
of 
 
materials
 
that
 
have
 
resistance,
 
this
 
is
 
called
 
Internal
 
Resistance
 
(r)
If 
 
the
 
cell
 
is
 
connected
 
to
 
an
 
External
 
Resistor
 
(R)
then
 
some
 
of 
 
the
 
energy
 
is
 
converted
 
from
 
electrical
 
energy
 
to
 
heat
 
energy
inside
 
the
 
cell.The
 
PD
available
 
for
 
the
 
circuit
 
is
 
therefore
 
less
 
than
 
the
 
EMF
of 
 
the
 
cell.This
 
picture
 
shows
 
that
 
some
 
of 
 
the
 
EMF
 
is
 
lost
 
before
 
the
 
charges
 
even
 
leave
 
the
 
battery.
 
 
EMF
 
(E)PD
 
(V)
2
Internal Resistance (cont)
II
Another
 
way
 
of 
 
thinking
 
about
 
it
 
is
 
that
 
the
 
PD
available
 
for
 
the
 
circuit
 
is
 
less
 
than
 
the
 
original
 
EMF
because
 
of 
 
the
 
missing
 
volts
 
used
 
up
 
by
 
the
 
Internal
 
Resistance
V=
Ir 
For
 
the
 
main
 
Resistance
 
in
 
the
 
circuit:
V=IR
E=
Ir 
+
IR
Using
 
Ohms
 
Law:
Missing
 
volts:
Ir
 
22/04/20122
3
Internal
 
ResistanceThe
 
concept
4
Internal
 
ResistanceEquations
 
22/04/20123
5
More Internal Resistance
II
If 
 
you
 
connected
 
a
 
wire
 
directly
 
from
 
one
 
end
 
of 
 
the
 
battery
 
to
 
the
 
other
 
then
 
the
 
Resistance
 
(R)
would
 
be
 
very
 
small.The
 
Current
(
I
)
that
 
flows
 
would
 
be
 
enormous.This
 
would
 
cause
 
loads
 
of 
 
heat
to
 
be
 
wasted
 
by
 
the
 
current
as
 
it
 
moves
 
through
 
the
 
Internal
 
Resistance
 
of 
 
the
 
battery.The
 
battery
 
would
 
get
 
very
 
hot
 
and
 
run
 
out
 
of 
 
energy
 
very
 
fast.
 
This
 
is
 
called
 
a
 
short
 
circuit
.Try
 
it
 
with
 
the
 
PhET
 
Circuit
 
Construction
 
Kit:
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/circuit
construction
kit
dcor
 
click
 
on
 
the
 
picture
OR
connect
 
some
 
steel
 
wool
 
across
 
a
battery.
 
6
Electrical Power (P)
Power
means the energy per second (Watts or Js
-1
)Remember some definitions:
By
 
substitution:
or
1

 
or
1 


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