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CARDS - 5.2 - Internal Resistance, Power and Combining Resistors

# CARDS - 5.2 - Internal Resistance, Power and Combining Resistors

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04/23/2012

pdf

text

original

22/04/20121
1
Internal Resistance
All

cells

are

of

materials

that

have

resistance,

this

is

called

Internal

Resistance

(r)
If

the

cell

is

connected

to

an

External

Resistor

(R)
then

some

of

the

energy

is

converted

from

electrical

energy

to

heat

energy
inside

the

cell.The

PD
available

for

the

circuit

is

therefore

less

than

the

EMF
of

the

cell.This

picture

shows

that

some

of

the

EMF

is

lost

before

the

charges

even

leave

the

battery.

EMF

(E)PD

(V)
2
Internal Resistance (cont)
II
Another

way

of

thinking

it

is

that

the

PD
available

for

the

circuit

is

less

than

the

original

EMF
because

of

the

missing

volts

used

up

by

the

Internal

Resistance
V=
Ir
For

the

main

Resistance

in

the

circuit:
V=IR
E=
Ir
+
IR
Using

Ohms

Law:
Missing

volts:
Ir

22/04/20122
3
Internal

ResistanceThe

concept
4
Internal

ResistanceEquations

22/04/20123
5
More Internal Resistance
II
If

you

connected

a

wire

directly

from

one

end

of

the

battery

to

the

other

then

the

Resistance

(R)
would

be

very

small.The

Current
(
I
)
that

flows

would

be

enormous.This

would

cause

of

heat
to

be

wasted

by

the

current
as

it

moves

through

the

Internal

Resistance

of

the

battery.The

battery

would

get

very

hot

and

run

out

of

energy

very

fast.

This

is

called

a

short

circuit
.Try

it

with

the

PhET

Circuit

Construction

Kit:
construction
kit
dcor

click

on

the

picture
OR
connect

some

steel

wool

across

a
battery.

6
Electrical Power (P)
Power
means the energy per second (Watts or Js
-1
)Remember some definitions:
By

substitution:
or
1

 
or
1 
