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150-Km Long Distance FBG Temperature and Vibration Sensor System Based on Stimulated Raman Amplification

150-Km Long Distance FBG Temperature and Vibration Sensor System Based on Stimulated Raman Amplification

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JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 30, NO. 8, APRIL 15, 2012 1237
150-km Long Distance FBG Temperatureand Vibration Sensor System Based onStimulated Raman Ampli
cation
Junhao Hu
 , Student Member, IEEE 
, Zhihao Chen
 , Senior Member, IEEE 
, and Changyuan Yu
 , Member, IEEE 
(Invited Paper)
 Abstract— 
A 150-km long distance
ber Bragg Grating (FBG)temperature and vibration sensor system was proposed anddemonstrated by using the stimulated Raman ampli
cation. Itcan achieve 150-km measurement range by using a low power1480-nm laser as the Stokes of the pump laser at 1395 nm inthe progress of stimulated Raman ampli
cation. And the wholesystem only consist one Raman pump laser source with 1-Wpower at 1395 nm, a low-power 1480-nm laser and two segmentsof erbium doped
ber (EDF) at the location of 50 km and 75 kmseparately.
 Index Terms— 
Long distance sensor, FBG sensor, stimulatedRaman scattering, temperature and vibration sensor.
I. I
 NTRODUCTION
F
IBER BRAGG GRATING (FBG)
 ber sensors are veryattractive in many applications due to their high versatileadvantages such as high sensitivity, electro-magnetic immunity,compactness, high resolution and high optical signal-to-noiseratio (SNR) against the noise [1]. Due to the noise and loss in-duced by the Rayleigh scattering and attenuation along the
 ber respectively, the maximum transmission distance of a broad- band light is limited to 25 km [2], so we cannot just propagate a broadband light over single-mode
 ber (SMF) to get a long dis-tance
 ber sensor based on the refection of 
 ber Bragg grating(FBG) at the far end. For long distance sensor system basedon FBG, high-power pump light is desired to generate ampli-
ed spontaneous emission (ASE) through Erbium doped
 ber (EDF) located at a long distance away. However, the transmis-sion SMF will become a laser cavity when the pump power isincreased to a certain level. In order to solve these problems, afew techniques have been proposed. P.C. Peng
et al.
proposed
Manuscript received June 30, 2011; revised September 06, 2011; acceptedOctober 04, 2011. Date of publication October 18, 2011; date of current versionMarch 30, 2012.J. Hu is with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, NationalUniversity of Singapore, 117576 Singapore.Z. Chen is with A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), 138632Singapore.C. Yu is with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, NationalUniversity of Singapore, 117576, Singapore and also with A*STAR Institutefor Infocomm Research (I2R), 138632 Singapore (e-mail: eleyc@nus.edu.sg).Digital Object Identi
er 10.1109/JLT.2011.2172573
an approach by using the linear cavity Raman laser con
gura-tion based on an FBG and a
 ber loop mirror. However, thelong distance
 ber acted as the role of laser cavity in their setup,which would bring the thermal instability issue along the
 ber [3]. J.H. Lee
et al.
proposed a Raman ampli
er-based long-dis-tance sensing system using a combined sensing probe of an er- bium-doped
 ber and an FBG, but more than one laser source ataround 1480 nm are used. In addition, the measurement lengthis only 50 km for their system [4], [5]. H. Y. Fu
et al.
demon-strated a 75 km long distance FBG sensor system. However,an ampli
ed stimulated emission (ASE) is needed every 25 km,which makesthesystem morecomplicatedandlesscontrollablefor practical applications [6]. Y.J. Rao
et al.
proposed a 100-kmlong-distance FBG sensor system based on a tunable
 ber ringlaser con
guration [7] and a 300-km FBG sensor system usinghybrid EDF and Raman ampli
cation [8]. But the system needsthree pump laser sources at different wavelengths including a2-W Raman laser source at 1480 nm and a
 ber ring laser con-
guration [7], and an additional Raman pump is needed at thedistal end [8], which make the setup quite complicated.In summary, because of the measurement length limitation by the loss and attenuation along the
 ber, increasing the pump power seems to be the most effective method to get longer dis-tance
 ber sensor system. However, lasing effects are inducedwhen the pump power is increased to a threshold, which is themain reason why it is hard to get longer distance FBG sensor system. To achieve longer distance measurement, as shown in[4]–[8], complicated setup with a lot of components are usedto reduce the lasing effect. In practical usage, however, simplelong distance sensor systems are desired.A 100-km sensor system has been demonstrated by using asingle Raman laser at 1395 nm in our previous system [9]. Inthis paper, we propose a new improved system. A measurementdistance up to 150 km is demonstrated by using two lasers at1395 nm and 1480 nm at the transmitter. And multi-point FBGtemperature and vibration sensor system is also demonstratedin this setup. Such a signi
cant improvement is achieved only by adding a low-power 1480-nm laser. However, the operation principle of this long distance FBG sensor system is changed byadding this 1480-nm laser. In this setup, the power of 1480 nmis not generated by the pump laser at 1395 nm, but is added di-rectly into the system and ampli
ed along the SMF by the pumplaser at 1395 nm through stimulated Raman scattering (SRS).
0733-8724/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE
 
1238 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 30, NO. 8, APRIL 15, 2012
By adding this change, the ampli
ed power by SRS concen-trates on the wavelength at 1480 nm. Then the 1480-nm laser can transmit over longer distance to EDF. The ASE will havehigher power to act as the broadband light source for the FBGsensor. And multi-point long distance temperature and vibra-tion FBG sensor system is demonstrated in this paper. 1–1000Hz vibration measurement range is achieved in this setup.II. T
HEORY AND
P
RINCIPLE
 A. Spontaneous versus Stimulated Raman Scattering 
The Raman scattering effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon with an optical phonon, which originates from a
niteresponse time of the third order nonlinear polarization [10] of the material. When a monochromatic light beam propagates inan optical
 ber, spontaneous Raman scattering occurs. It trans-fers some of the photons to new frequencies. The scattered pho-tons may lose energy (Stokes shift) or gain energy (anti-Stokesshift). If the pump beam is linearly polarized,the polarization of scatteredphotonmaybethesame(parallelscattering)ororthog-onal (perpendicular scattering). If photons at other frequenciesare already present then the probability of scattering to thosefrequencies is enhanced. This process is known as stimulatedRaman scattering.In stimulated Raman scattering, a coincident photon at thedownshifted frequency will receive a gain. This feature of Raman scattering is exploited in Raman ampli
ers for signalampli
cation. In this paper, it will be used to amplify the power of 1480-nm laser through the propagation, and then pump theEDF.In detail, if a light of frequency is illuminated into the
 ber and its intensity is greater than a certain threshold, a fre-quencyof isgeneratedwhichequals minusthefrequencyofRaman-activevibration.ThisiscalledRamanprocessannihi-latingaphotonfromaradiationmode andgeneratingaphotonat another mode . Their energy difference can be illustrated inthis equation, , where is the state withenergy is the state with energy . The Raman scatteringrate has a factor depending on matrix elements be-tween various states in the medium. If the probabilities of beingin the th state is , the average net rate of change of photonnumberinthescatteredmode arisingfromagivenmattertran-sition and incident mode , is of the form [11]:(1)Where, the subscript and symbolizes those states for whichand are the number of photons present in the incident and scattered modes.If the effects of linear optical absorption of the pump andStokes waves is considered, the differential equation for a for-ward traveling wave at the stokes frequency is [12]:(2)where the subscript and refers to the pump and Stokescomponent; is the pump power at any point, is the
Fig. 1. Experimental setup of spontaneous Raman scattering.Fig. 2. Transmitted spectrum of experiment setup in Fig. 1. The power of 1395-nm laser is 27 dBm.
Stokes power at any point. The gain constant depends uponthe Raman scattering cross section. The single mode
 bershave the effective cross-sectional area A and length L with anattenuation constant .From the (1) and (2), it is known that it will have a gain or laser action when the terms on the right-hand side of (1) are positive, or the gain is larger than the attenuation along the
 ber in (2). In other words, the Stokes frequency will be ampli
edthrough the stimulated Raman scattering. In order to study theef 
ciency of Raman scattering, different experiments are car-ried out based on the setups shown in Figs. 1 and 3.As the setup shown in Fig. 1, only one pump laser at 1395nm, whose power is set to be 27 dBm, is launched into a 50-kmsingle mode
 ber. Because there is no Stokes wavelength, onlyspontaneous Raman scattering happens within the wavelengthrange as shown in Fig. 2. However, the transmitted spectrumwill changed a lot when a 1480-nm laser is added before the1395-nm laser by using a 1480/1550-nm coupler, as shown inFig. 3. Although the power of 1480-nm laser is relatively small,which is only 3.3 mW, it still makes the Stokes photon number large enough to generate the stimulated Raman scattering. Asthe transmitted spectrum shown in Fig. 4, the power around1480nmismuchmorefocusononesinglewavelength,whichisthelaser wavelength we add into the system.The power transfer rate from 1395 nm to 1480 nm has been increased a lot by in-serting a laser with wavelength around 1480 nm.As what we are going to introduce in the next section, longdistanceFBGsensoriswhatwewanted.ThenthepowerofASEis really desired, which is generated by pumping EDF with laser around 1480 nm. It means increasing the power of 1480 nm isvery important to increase the measurement distance. That is
 
HU
et al.
: FBG TEMPERATURE AND VIBRATION SENSOR SYSTEM 1239
Fig. 3. Experiment setup of stimulated Raman scattering.Fig. 4. Transmitted spectrum of experiment setup in Fig. 3. The power of 1395-nm is 27 dBm. The power of 1480-nm laser is 3.3 mW.Fig. 5. Experiment setup to illustrate the working principle of the 100 km longdistance FBG sensor system.
why we are going to introduce the new scheme as shown inFig. 3.
 B. Principle of Long Distance Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor 
In order to get a long distance FBG sensor system, the power of ASE should be obtained, which will act as the broadbandlight source of the FBG. Because of the high attenuation in thelongdistance
 ber,broadbandlightsourcecannotbepropagateddirectly into the system. A 1480-nm laser is normally used to pump the EDF to generate the ASE. And this 1480-nm laser should have relatively high power and also make sure no lasingeffect will happen when pumping the EDF. As the extensionof Fig. 1, a method shown in Fig. 5 with one pump laser at1395 nm has been proposed in 2010 [9]. In this setup, only oneRamanpumplaserat1395nm isusedtogeneratethebroadbandlight source for the FBGs. In this paper, however, a new scheme based on the setup of Fig. 3, is proposed in Fig. 7. In order toshow improvement between these two, the transmitted spectraare compared in Figs. 6 and 8.As shown in Figs. 5 and 7, a 5-meter EDF (without FBGand with only one segment of EDF) is inserted at 50 km tomeasure the transmitted spectra. The only difference is that, a1480 nm laser is added as shown in Fig. 7. The pump powersof 1395-nm lasers are all set as 1 W, and the power of 1480 nm
Fig. 6. Transmitted spectrum of the setup in Fig. 5.Fig. 7. Experimental setup of the working principle for 150-km FBG sensor system.Fig. 8. Transmitted spectrum of the setup in Fig. 7.
is 3.3 mW in Fig. 6. As the transmitted spectra shown in Fig. 6,the
rst peak around 1395 nm is the residual pump laser. Be-cause the pump power of 1395-nm laser is set as 1 W, high poweraround1480nmisgenerated.Butthegenerationprogressis different from the setup in Fig. 7. As shown in Fig. 2, thespectrum around 1480 nm is generated by spontaneous Ramanscattering when the pump power is 27 dBm. When the power of 1395-nm laser is further increased, the wavelength generated by spontaneous Raman scattering will act as the Stokes laser.Then power around 1480 nm will be ampli
ed, as the second peak shown in Fig. 6. The third area around 1530–1570 nm isobviously the ASE generated by the EDF, because the second peak around 1480 nm can act as the pump of the EDF. Since theBragg wavelength of FBG, what we are going to insert in the

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