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1.3 The Axiomatic Method
1.4.1 Logical Deductions
1.4.2 Patterns of Proof
1.5.1 Method #1
1.5.2 Method #2 - Prove the Contrapositive
1.6.1 Method #1: Prove Each Statement Implies the Other
1.6.2 Method #2: Construct a Chain of Iffs
1.7 Proof by Cases
1.9. Good Proofs in Practice 17
1.9. Good Proofs in Practice 19
1.9. Good Proofs in Practice 21
1.9. Good Proofs in Practice 23
2.1 Well Ordering Proofs
2.2.1 Summing the Integers
2.3 Factoring into Primes
2.4. Well Ordered Sets 29
2.4. Well Ordered Sets 31
2.4. Well Ordered Sets 33
2.4. Well Ordered Sets 35
3.1.1 NOT, AND, and OR
3.1.2 IMPLIES
3.1.3 If and Only If
3.2.1 Truth Table Calculation
3.2.2 Cryptic Notation
3.3.1 Implications and Contrapositives
3.3.2 Validity and Satisﬁability
3.4.1 Propositions in Normal Form
3.4.2 Proving Equivalences
3.5 The SAT Problem
3.6. Predicate Formulas 53
3.6. Predicate Formulas 55
3.6. Predicate Formulas 57
3.6. Predicate Formulas 59
3.6. Predicate Formulas 61
3.6. Predicate Formulas 63
3.6. Predicate Formulas 65
3.6. Predicate Formulas 67
3.6. Predicate Formulas 69
3.6. Predicate Formulas 71
4.1.1 Some Popular Sets
4.1.2 Comparing and Combining Sets
4.1.3 Complement of a Set
4.1.4 Power Set
4.1.5 Set Builder Notation
4.1.6 Proving Set Equalities
4.2 Sequences
4.3.1 Function Composition
4.4.1 Relation Diagrams
4.4.2 Relational Images
4.5. Finite Cardinality 85
4.5. Finite Cardinality 87
4.5. Finite Cardinality 89
4.5. Finite Cardinality 91
4.5. Finite Cardinality 93
4.5. Finite Cardinality 95
4.5. Finite Cardinality 97
5.1.1 A Rule for Ordinary Induction
5.1.2 A Familiar Example
5.1.3 A Template for Induction Proofs
5.1.4 A Clean Writeup
5.1.5 A More Challenging Example
5.1.6 A Faulty Induction Proof
5.4. State Machines 123
5.4. State Machines 125
5.4. State Machines 127
5.4. State Machines 129
5.4. State Machines 131
5.4. State Machines 133
5.4. State Machines 135
5.4. State Machines 137
5.4. State Machines 139
5.4. State Machines 141
5.4. State Machines 143
5.4. State Machines 145
5.4. State Machines 147
6.1 Recursive Deﬁnitions and Structural Induction
6.2. Strings of Matched Brackets 153
6.2. Strings of Matched Brackets 155
6.3.1 Some Standard Recursive Functions onN
6.3.2 Ill-formed Function Deﬁnitions
6.4. Arithmetic Expressions 159
6.4. Arithmetic Expressions 161
6.4. Arithmetic Expressions 163
6.5. Induction in Computer Science 165
6.5. Induction in Computer Science 167
6.5. Induction in Computer Science 169
6.5. Induction in Computer Science 171
6.5. Induction in Computer Science 173
6.5. Induction in Computer Science 175
7.1.1 Inﬁnity is different
7.1.2 Countable Sets
7.1.3 Power sets are strictly bigger
7.2. The Halting Problem 183
7.2. The Halting Problem 185
7.3.2 The ZFC Axioms for Sets
7.4. Does All This Really Work? 191
7.4. Does All This Really Work? 193
7.4. Does All This Really Work? 195
7.4. Does All This Really Work? 197
7.4. Does All This Really Work? 199
8.1.3 Die Hard
8.2.1 Euclid’s Algorithm
8.2.2 The Pulverizer
8.2.3 One Solution for All Water Jug Problems
8.3 Prime Mysteries
8.4.1 Proving Unique Factorization
8.5.1 Turing’s Code (Version 1.0)
8.5.2 Breaking Turing’s Code (Version 1.0)
8.6 Modular Arithmetic
8.7. Remainder Arithmetic 223
8.7. Remainder Arithmetic 225
8.8 Turing’s Code (Version 2.0)
8.9.1 Relative Primality
8.9.2 Cancellation
8.9.3 Decrypting (Version 2.0)
8.9.4 Breaking Turing’s Code (Version 2.0)
8.9.5 Turing Postscript
8.10. Euler’s Theorem 233
8.10. Euler’s Theorem 235
8.10. Euler’s Theorem 237
8.11. RSA Public Key Encryption 239
8.11. RSA Public Key Encryption 241
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 243
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 245
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 247
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 249
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 251
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 253
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 255
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 257
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 259
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 261
8.12. What has SAT got to do with it? 263
9.1.1 Finding a Path
9.3.1 Composition of Relations
9.4. Directed Acyclic Graphs & Partial Orders 279
9.4. Directed Acyclic Graphs & Partial Orders 281
9.5 Weak Partial Orders
9.6 Representing Partial Orders by Set Containment
9.7 Path-Total Orders
9.8 Product Orders
9.9. Scheduling 287
9.9. Scheduling 289
9.9. Scheduling 291
9.10.1 Equivalence Classes
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 295
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 297
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 299
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 301
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 303
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 305
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 307
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 309
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 311
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 313
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 315
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 317
9.11. Summary of Relational Properties 319
10.1 Complete Binary Tree
10.2 Routing Problems
10.3.1 Switch Size
10.4 Switch Count
10.5 Network Latency
10.6 Congestion
10.7 2-D Array
10.8 Butterﬂy
10.9. Beneˇs Network 329
10.9. Beneˇs Network 331
10.9. Beneˇs Network 333
10.9. Beneˇs Network 335
10.9. Beneˇs Network 337
10.9. Beneˇs Network 339
11.2.1 Handshaking Lemma
11.3 Some Common Graphs
11.4 Isomorphism
11.5. Bipartite Graphs & Matchings 349
11.5. Bipartite Graphs & Matchings 351
11.5. Bipartite Graphs & Matchings 353
11.6.1 The Mating Ritual
11.6.2 There is a Marriage Day
11.6.3 They All Live Happily Ever After
11.6.4 ...Especially the Men
11.6.5 Applications
11.7.1 An Exam Scheduling Problem
11.7.2 Some Coloring Bounds
11.7.3 Why coloring?
11.8.1 Cycles as Subgraphs
11.9.1 Connected Components
11.9.2 k-Connected Graphs
11.9.3 The Minimum Number of Edges in a Connected Graph
11.11. Forests & Trees 385
11.11. Forests & Trees 387
11.11. Forests & Trees 389
11.11. Forests & Trees 391
11.11. Forests & Trees 393
11.11. Forests & Trees 395
11.11. Forests & Trees 397
11.11. Forests & Trees 399
12.2.3 Does It Work?
12.2.4 Where Did the Outer Face Go?
12.3 Euler’s Formula
12.4 Bounding the Number of Edges in a Planar Graph
12.5 Returning to K5 and K3;3
12.6 Coloring Planar Graphs
12.7. Classifying Polyhedra 423
12.7. Classifying Polyhedra 425
12.8. Another Characterization for Planar Graphs 427
12.8. Another Characterization for Planar Graphs 429
12.8. Another Characterization for Planar Graphs 431
13.1.1 The Future Value of Money
13.1.2 The Perturbation Method
13.1.3 A Closed Form for the Annuity Value
13.1.4 Inﬁnite Geometric Series
13.1.5 Examples
13.1.6 Variations of Geometric Sums
13.2 Sums of Powers
13.3. Approximating Sums 447
13.3. Approximating Sums 449
13.4. Hanging Out Over the Edge 451
13.4. Hanging Out Over the Edge 453
13.4. Hanging Out Over the Edge 455
13.4. Hanging Out Over the Edge 457
13.4. Hanging Out Over the Edge 459
13.4. Hanging Out Over the Edge 461
13.5.1 Stirling’s Formula
13.6 Double Trouble
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 467
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 469
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 471
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 473
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 475
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 477
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 479
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 481
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 483
13.7. Asymptotic Notation 485
14.1.1 The Bijection Rule
14.2.1 The Product Rule
14.2.2 Subsets of an n-element Set
14.2.3 The Sum Rule
14.3.1 Defective Dollar Bills
14.3.2 A Chess Problem
14.3.3 Permutations
14.4.1 Another Chess Problem
14.4.2 Knights of the Round Table
14.5.1 The Subset Rule
14.5.2 Bit Sequences
14.6.1 Sequences of Subsets
14.6.2 The Bookkeeper Rule
14.6.3 The Binomial Theorem
14.7.1 Hands with a Four-of-a-Kind
14.7.2 Hands with a Full House
14.7.3 Hands with Two Pairs
14.7.4 Hands with Every Suit
14.8.2 Subsets with the Same Sum
14.8.3 A Magic Trick
14.8.4 The Secret
14.8.5 The Real Secret
14.8.6 The Same Trick with Four Cards?
14.9.1 Union of Two Sets
14.9.2 Union of Three Sets
14.9.3 Sequences with 42, 04, or 60
14.9.4 Union of n Sets
14.9.5 Computing Euler’s Function
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 523
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 525
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 527
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 529
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 531
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 533
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 535
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 537
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 539
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 541
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 543
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 545
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 547
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 549
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 551
14.10. Combinatorial Proofs 553
15.1.1 Scaling
15.1.3 Right Shifting
15.1.4 Differentiation
15.1.5 Products
15.2.1 Finding a Generating Function
15.2.2 Finding a Closed Form
15.3.1 Choosing Distinct Items from a Set
15.3.2 Building Generating Functions that Count
15.3.3 Choosing Items with Repetition
15.4. An “Impossible” Counting Problem 569
15.4. An “Impossible” Counting Problem 571
15.4. An “Impossible” Counting Problem 573
15.4. An “Impossible” Counting Problem 575
15.4. An “Impossible” Counting Problem 577
15.4. An “Impossible” Counting Problem 579
16.1.1 Clarifying the Problem
16.2.1 Step 1: Find the Sample Space
16.2.2 Step 2: Deﬁne Events of Interest
16.2.3 Step 3: Determine Outcome Probabilities
16.2.4 Step 4: Compute Event Probabilities
16.2.5 An Alternative Interpretation of the Monty Hall Problem
16.3.1 Die A versus Die B
16.3.2 Die A versus Die C
16.3.3 Die B versus Die C
16.3.4 Rolling Twice
16.5.6 The Law of Total Probability
16.5.7 Conditioning on a Single Event
16.5.8 Discrimination Lawsuit
16.6. Independence 619
16.6. Independence 621
16.6. Independence 623
16.6. Independence 625
16.6. Independence 627
16.6. Independence 629
16.6. Independence 631
16.6. Independence 633
16.6. Independence 635
16.6. Independence 637
16.6. Independence 639
16.6. Independence 641
16.6. Independence 643
16.6. Independence 645
17.1.1 Indicator Random Variables
17.1.2 Random Variables and Events
17.2 Independence
17.3.1 Bernoulli Distributions
17.3.2 Uniform Distributions
17.3.3 The Numbers Game
17.3.4 Binomial Distributions
17.4.1 The Expected Value of a Uniform Random Variable
17.4.2 The Expected Value of a Reciprocal Random Variable
17.4.3 The Expected Value of an Indicator Random Variable
17.4.4 Alternate Deﬁnition of Expectation
17.4.5 Conditional Expectation
17.4.6 Mean Time to Failure
17.4.7 Expected Returns in Gambling Games
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 671
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 673
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 675
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 677
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 679
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 681
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 683
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 685
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 687
17.5. Linearity of Expectation 689
18.1 Why the Mean?
18.2.1 Applying Markov’s Theorem
18.2.2 Markov’s Theorem for Bounded Variables
18.3.1 Variance in Two Gambling Games
18.3.2 Standard Deviation
18.4.1 A Formula for Variance
18.4.2 Variance of Time to Failure
18.4.3 Dealing with Constants
18.4.4 Variance of a Sum
18.5.1 A Voter Poll
18.5.2 Matching Birthdays
18.5.3 Pairwise Independent Sampling
18.6 Conﬁdence versus Probability
18.7.1 A Motivating Example
18.7.2 The Chernoff Bound
18.7.3 Chernoff Bound for Binomial Tails
18.7.4 Chernoff Bound for a Lottery Game
18.7.5 Proof of the Chernoff Bound
18.7.6 Comparing the Bounds
18.7.7 Murphy’s Law
18.8. Really Great Expectations 719
18.8. Really Great Expectations 721
18.8. Really Great Expectations 723
18.8. Really Great Expectations 725
18.8. Really Great Expectations 727
18.8. Really Great Expectations 729
18.8. Really Great Expectations 731
18.8. Really Great Expectations 733
18.8. Really Great Expectations 735
19.1.1 The Probability of Avoiding Ruin
19.1.2 A Recurrence for the Probability of Winning
19.1.3 Intuition
19.1.4 How Long a Walk?
19.1.5 Quit While You Are Ahead
19.2. Random Walks on Graphs 747
19.2. Random Walks on Graphs 749
19.2. Random Walks on Graphs 751
19.2. Random Walks on Graphs 753
19.2. Random Walks on Graphs 755
19.2. Random Walks on Graphs 757
19.2. Random Walks on Graphs 759
20.1.1 A Recursive Solution
20.1.2 Finding a Recurrence
20.1.3 Solving the Recurrence
20.1.4 The Upper Bound Trap
20.1.5 Plug and Chug
20.2.1 Finding a Recurrence
20.2.2 Solving the Recurrence
20.3.1 Climbing Stairs
20.3.2 Solving Homogeneous Linear Recurrences
20.3.3 Solving General Linear Recurrences
20.3.4 How to Guess a Particular Solution
20.4.1 The Akra-Bazzi Formula
20.4.2 Two Technical Issues
20.4.3 The Akra-Bazzi Theorem
20.4.4 The Master Theorem
20.5. A Feel for Recurrences 791
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Mathematics for Computer Science

# Mathematics for Computer Science

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