Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Violence Against Women

Violence Against Women

Ratings:

5.0

(2)
|Views: 65 |Likes:
Published by loveleen
Honor crimes are acts of violence, usually murder, mostly committed by male family members predominantly against female [relatives] , who are perceived to have brought dishonor upon the family. A woman can be targeted by individuals within her family for a variety of reasons, including: refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce — even from an abusive husband, or (allegedly) committing adultery .The mere perception that a woman has behaved in a specific way to "dishonor" her family, is sufficient to trigger an attack
Honor crimes are acts of violence, usually murder, mostly committed by male family members predominantly against female [relatives] , who are perceived to have brought dishonor upon the family. A woman can be targeted by individuals within her family for a variety of reasons, including: refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce — even from an abusive husband, or (allegedly) committing adultery .The mere perception that a woman has behaved in a specific way to "dishonor" her family, is sufficient to trigger an attack

More info:

Published by: loveleen on Dec 17, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/09/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Violence Against Women: Issue Of Honor KillingDefinition
Honor crimes are acts of violence, usually murder, mostly committed by male familymembers predominantly against female [relatives] , who are perceived to have broughtdishonor upon the family. A woman can be targeted by individuals within her family for avariety of reasons, including: refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being thevictim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce — even from an abusive husband, or (allegedly) committing adultery .The mere perception that a woman has behaved in aspecific way to "dishonor" her family, is sufficient to trigger an attack.[1]For example, honor killings can sometimes target those who choose boyfriends, lovers or spouses outside of their family's ethnic and/or religious community. Some women whoadopt the customs (or religion) of an outside group, may also be more likely to bevictims. Furthermore, in certain cultures a raped single woman will garner no bride priceif she marries, and thus be considered "worthless" to the family. There is some evidencethat homosexuality can also be grounds for honor killing by relatives. Several cases have been suspected but not confirmed. There is also a documented case of a gay Jordanianman who was shot (but not fatally) by his brother.Many hold the practice to be self-contradictory, since an honor killing is sometimes justified by its participants or supporters, as an attempt to uphold the morals of a religionor a code, which at the same time generally forbids killing as morally wrong.
Honor Suicides
Honor Suicides occur when, in an effort to avoid legal penalties for killing, a woman isordered or pressured into killing herself. This phenomenon appears to be a relativelyrecent development. A special envoy for the United Nations named Yakin Erturk, whowas sent to Turkey to investigate suspicious suicides, was quoted by the New York Timesas saying that some suicides appeared to be "honor killings disguised as a suicide or anaccident."
History: Honour KillingBased on proof 
In the Valley of Mexico from 150 BCE - 1521 CE, the punishment for female adulterywas death by stoning or strangulation, but only after the husband could prove the offence.According to interpretations of Leviticus and Deuteronomy, the Halakha (Jewish law) punishes certain sexual misconduct for both men and women, with capital punishment(also through stoning) as approved by a court.
 
Honor killings, generally considered premeditated, are typically held to be distinct fromCrimes of passion, which occur throughout the world. Crimes of passion often havespecial status under the law. For instance, until 1975, the French Penal Code commutedthe sentence of a husband who killed his wife after finding her in the act of committingadultery; this law passed into the legal frameworks of the many nations who based their modern legal codes on the Napoleonic Code. Thus, Crimes of passion are different fromhonor killings, in the sense that they are spontaneous acts that aren't planned.Furthermore, many honor killings (along with some Crimes of passion) are based onsheer suspicion as opposed to (what appears to be) factual proof, in relation to the ideathat an individual has committed or been involved in an "undesirable act", in the mind of the perpetrator(s).
Honor killing in national legal codes
 According to the report of the Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of theUnited Nations Commission on Human Rights (2002) concerning cultural practices inthe family that reflect violence against women:
The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regardto the honor defence in Brazil, and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defence in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina,Bangladesh, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Peru, Syria,Turkey, Venezuela and the Palestinian National Authority.Some of these, including those of Turkey, have since been modified.
Countries where the law can be interpreted to allow men to kill female relatives in a premeditated effort as well as for crimes of passions, in flagrante delicto in the act of committing adultery, include:
Jordan: Part of article 340 of the Penal Code states that "he who discovers his wife or oneof his female relatives committing adultery and kills, wounds, or injures one of them, isexempted from any penalty." This has twice been put forward for cancellation by thegovernment, but was retained by the Lower House of the Parliament.
Countries that allow men to kill female relatives in flagrante delicto (but without  premeditation) include:
Syria:
Article 548 states that "He who catches his wife or one of his ascendants,descendants or sister committing adultery (flagrante delicto) or illegitimate sexual actswith another and he killed or injured one or both of them benefits from an exemption of  penalty."
Countries that allow husbands to kill only their wives in flagrante delicto (based uponthe Napoleonic code) include:
 
Morocco:
Article 418 of the Penal Code states "Murder, injury and beating are excusableif they are committed by a husband on his wife as well as the accomplice at the momentin which he surprises them in the act of adultery."
Haiti:
Article 269 of the Penal Code states that "in the case of adultery as provided for inArticle 284, the murder by a husband of his wife and/or her partner, immediately upondiscovering them in flagrante delicto in the conjugal abode, is to be pardoned."
Turkey:
Recently Turkey changed its laws concerning honor killings. Persons foundguilty of this crime are sentenced to life in prison.
In two Latin American countries:
Similar laws were struck down over the past twodecades: according to human rights lawyer Julie Mertus "in Brazil, until 1991 wifekillings were considered to be noncriminal 'honor killings'; in just one year, nearly eighthundred husbands killed their wives. Similarly, in Colombia, until 1980, a husbandlegally could kill his wife for committing adultery."
Countries where honor killing is not legal but is frequently ignored in practice include:
Pakistan:
Honor killings are known as Karo Kari (Urdu: ˜ÇÑæ˜ÇÑی ). The practice issupposed to be prosecuted under ordinary murder, but in practice police and prosecutorsoften ignore it. Often a man must simply claim the killing was for his honor and he willgo free. Nilofer Bakhtiar, advisor to Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, stated that in 2003, asmany as 1, 261 women were murdered in honor killings. On December 08, 2004, under international and domestic pressure, Pakistan enacted a law that made honor killings punishable by a prison term of seven years, or by the death penalty in the most extremecases. Women's rights organizations were, however, wary of this law as it stops short of outlawing the practice of allowing killers to buy their freedom by paying compensation tothe victim's relatives. Women's rights groups claimed that in most cases it is the victim'simmediate relatives who are the killers, so inherently the new law is just eyewash. It didnot alter the provisions whereby the accused could negotiate pardon with the victim'sfamily under the so-called Islamic provisions. In March 2005 the Pakistani governmentallied with Islamists to reject a bill which sought to strengthen the law against the practice of "honour killing". The parliament rejected the bill by a majority vote, declaringit to be un-Islamic.
Incident in Pakistan:-
Ghazala was set on fire by her brother in Joharabad, Punjab province, on 6 January 1999. According to reports, she was murdered because her familysuspected she was having an 'illicit' relationship with a neighbour. Her burned and naked body reportedly lay unattended on the street for two hours as nobody wanted to haveanything to do with it. Ghazala was burned to death in the name of honor. Hundreds of other women and girls suffer a similar fate every year amid general public support andlittle or no action by the authorities. In fact, there is every sign that the number of honor killings is on the rise as the perception of what constitutes honor -- and what damages it

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->